Allied Powers: The major Allied Powers during World War II were the United States, Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union (Russia).
Axis Powers: The major Axis Powers during World War II were Germany, Italy, and Japan.
Banzai: The use of this word has changed greatly over the centuries. Traditionally, it was used to mean something like “hurrah” or “long life.” When crowds of Japanese shouted banzai three times with their arms stretched above their heads it had the effect of applause. The term was also associated with paying respect to the emperor. During World War II, the word came to be associated with military attacks.
Bataan: On 9 April 1942. US officers, soldiers and Phillipino soldiers surrendered at Bataan. They were forced to march for days with little food and water to their prison. The death rate among the prisoners was very high.
Hana fuda: An ancient Japanese card game.
Hillman, Sidney: A US labor leader who worked for the Office of Production Management from 1940 to 1942.
JACL: Japanese American Citizens League was founded in 1929. During the period of internment (coinciding with World War II), the JACL supported lawsuits against the federal government and provided internees with various means of support
Nisei: Term for second generation Japanese Americans. The children of this generation were born in a country other than Japan to parents who immigrated from Japan. Many of the interpreters were Nisei.
Normandie: A French Line passenger ship which when launched in 1932 was the largest and fastest ship in the world. She was converted to a troop ship in 1942, but sank after a fire while in port at New York.
Toyohiko Kagawa (1888 – 1960): A Christian pacifist and labor activist of Japan. He dedicated his life to the poor and established hospitals, schools, and churches while campaigning for woman suffrage and international peace. He was often at odds with the Japanese government and was arrested many times. However, he was instrumental in establishing a transition government after World War II.
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