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Manuscripts - ND Oral History Collection - 10157 - Logan County

Logan County

Region 1
1 Mr. and Mrs. John Leischner, Napoleon
2 Mr. and Mrs. George Lubbers, Napoleon
3 Mr. Andrew Bauer, Napoleon
4 Mrs. Mable Liversage, Napoleon
5 Mr. Linus Persson, Napoleon
6 Mr. Peter Deutcher, Napoleon
7 Mr. Pete Miller, Gackle
8 Mr. and Mrs. E.K. Remboldt, Gackle
9 Mrs. Hilda Niskenen, Gackle
10 Mr. Norbert Haut, Gackle
11 Mr. Ed Haag, Fredonia
12 Mr. Adam Masseth, Napoleon
13 Mr. Pius Reis, Napoleon
14 Mr. and Mrs. LeRoy “Pat” Burnstad, Burnstad
15 Mr. Albert Kelley, Napoleon
16 Mr. and Mrs. John Gross, Napoleon
17 Mr. and Mrs. Carl Lier, Napoleon
18 Mr. F.T.C. Shepperd (no photo), Burnstad
19 Mr. J.M. Hummel, Pelican Rapids, MN
20 Fred Hiller photograph collection, Fredonia

Tape #1 Mr. and Mrs. John Leischner
000 – Introduction
020 – General conversation
028 – Family history
082 – Lehr
107 – Homestead house made of clay
119 – Impressions of North Dakota
140 – Family history coupled with German-Russian history
190 – Education
260 – Bad years
288 – Midwives
318 – Epidemics; Home remedies
383 – Quality of life, then and now
418 – Farming methods
437 – Family history
460 – Depression; Raising livestock
500 – Migration of ND population to West Coast
520 – Depression
536 – Banking in Depression years
584 – Politics
609 – Railroads
620 – Recreation; Courtship
651 – Religion
702 – Area settlers
787 – Bread baking
802 – Family life then and now
847 – Lehr Telephone Office
925 – Preservation of food
987 – Farm machinery; Methods
012 – General conversation; Food
035 – Community leaders
051 – Area ministers
064 – Homemade clothing; Handiwork
102 – Family and area settlers
124 – Electricity
153 – End of tape

Tape #2 Mr. and Mrs. George Lubbers
000 – Introduction
120 – Family history coupled with area history
093 – Farming; Crops
138 – Discussion concerning weather; Grain types
185 – Reception of Soil Conservation Programs
222 – Early farming methods; Crops
271 – Farmers Union; Elevators
368 – Farming methods; Land preparation; Crops
455 – Early Burnstad; Area settlers
598 – Community leaders
615 – Early Burnstad; C. P. Burnstad
679 – Decline of Burnstad and surrounding area
703 – Depression
942 – Preservation of meat; Foods
953 – Depression; Foreclosures
979 – Politics
011 – Community life during Depression
019 – Quality of life then and now
033 – Family life then and now
068 – Discussion concerning county road improvements
088 – City park; Government work programs
156 – Farming methods
175 – Women’s responsibilities during harvest season
260 – Work crews
310 – Marriage; Courtship
379 – Town character; Burnstad
416 – Early Burnstad
464 – Education
867 – End of tape

Tape #3 Mr. Andrew Bauer
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history
059 – Farming in 1910-1911 on work crews
118 – Family history
124 – Family farm; Livestock
180 – Varied employment
216 – Depression
238 – Carpenter business and other employment
285 – Purchasing Lumber; Carpenter business
410 – Early settlers; Hospitality
534 – Children; Family; Wife
733 – Community life then and now
798 – Haunted sod house
841 – Religion
854 – Politics
930 – Life then and now
979 – Sheriff position
012 – Depression; Gardening; Food preparation
056 – Feed for livestock during depression
070 – Preserving meat
195 – Bad years
205 – Discussion on his health
259 – Family community life then and now
336 – Family; Children; Midwives
394 – Medicine; Concerning family
452 – End of tape

Tape #4 Mrs. Mabel Liversage
000 – Introduction
021 – Background – Hers and parents (Scotch)
036 – Father in Civil War
052 – Youth in Michigan; Experiences
070 – Parent’s death; Family forced to split up
088 – She went back to Minnesota
100 – Ended up in ND; Knew people; Had relatives
110 – Reasons for choosing Braddock; Was able to get homestead there; Homestead progress
150 – Farming; Often rented hers out
155 – Taught school immediately; Country school taught in several county schools; Teaching experiences
260 – Marriage experiences; Courting
293 – Husband’s background
311 – Language adjustments made by teacher in German communities; Various types of subjects she taught
380 – Recitation of poetry; Discussion of novels; Singing songs
632 – Children’s means of travel to school
642 – Personal history; School board Director vote
712 – Women’s suffrage; Liberation
737 – H.S. preparation for future teachers
749 – School’s furnishings; Outbuildings
774 – Blizzard experiences
784 – Purchase of horse; Discussion
810 – Her marriage; Taught school during married life; Life was somewhat structured around her teaching
871 – Life during the bad years; Depression
887 – Material they burned to heat home
923 – Cattle raising
930 – Method of drying beef
960 – Baking bread; Types of flour
994 – Comments on modernization of society; Strikes; Government; Dollar
011 – Comments on quality of life then as opposed to now
037 – Closeness of family; Family relationships
075 – Mixture of nationalities surrounding Braddock
131 – Comments on political awareness in early 1900’s and now
164 – Comments on government in relation to herself and others like her
181 – Ministers for local churches; Various nationalities and faiths
205 – First impression of Braddock; Thriving railroad business; Elevators; General stores
284 – Personal reflections
299 – Husband’s involvement in politics; NPL; Comments on the League
339 – Proper behavior for young adults
368 – End of tape

Tape #5 Linus Persson
000 – Introduction
020 – Occupation in Sweden
044 – Family history
050 – Military service; WWI
276 – Hard years; Sheep raising
307 – Various occupations coupled with politics; Conservation corps projects (Fort Lincoln Project)
716 – Depression
730 – General conversation concerning surrounding area
787 – Area nationalities
797 – WWI era; Employment
844 – Early Mandan
851 – First impression of US
860 – Family farm
870 – Recreation
890 – Area newspaper; Editor
912 – Braddock’s blind pig; Bootlegging
929 – Religion
953 – Area settlers; Businessmen
994 – Depression
013 – Community life then and now
026 – Depression; Raising livestock; Fowl; Gardens
043 – Butchering; Food preservation
066 – Area flour mills; Breads
095 – Purchasing supplies
132 – Radio communication and TV
159 – End of tape

Tape #6 Peter Deutcher
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history
045 – Buffalo bones
068 – Elevator business
076 – Family history
135 – Education
148 – Family farm; Family incidents; Russian history
224 – Early Russian farming practices
262 – Russia history; Remembrances of youth in Russia
345 – Family history; Education
379 – Early Streeter coupled with varied employment
463 – Farm equipment
480 – Early employment; Sheep shearing; His own elevator business
703 – Marriage and family
720 – Area settlers
732 – General conversation
747 – Elevator business
793 – Family history
827 – Crops; Elevators; Grain prices
929 – Courtship; Marriage
982 – Family history; Business
039 – Depression; Elevator business
091 – Recreation; Religion
188 – Politics
426 – End of tape

Tape #7 Pete Miller
000 –
001 – Family history
059 – Education
085 – Area settlers; Farms
117 – Farming; Crops; Raising livestock
135 – Bad winters
158 – Early Gackle; Streeter
170 – Family history
220 – Family farm
228 – Flu epidemic
241 – Farming; Crops; Livestock
307 – Politics
325 – Depression
336 – Community life
371 – Gackle murder
398 – Recreation
421 – Farming methods; Raising and selling horses
464 – Syrians; Gypsies
484 – Religion
570 – Soil conservation; Government projects; Crops
615 – Farm machinery and methods
722 – End of tape

Tape #8 Mr. and Mrs. E. K. Remboldt
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history
057 – Sale of dairy products
078 – Domestic duties; 4-H
101 – Education
136 – Interview interrupted
151 – Education continued
253 – Area nationalities
278 – General conversation
313 – Gackle businesses
329 – Migration of population
338 – Family history
403 – Flu epidemic
443 – Gackle doctors
457 – Community life
476 – Raising sheep
501 – Depression; WWI; Government work projects
617 – Interview interrupted
646 – 1919 cattle rustling group
726 – End of tape

Tape #9 Mrs. Hilda Niskenan (Gackle)
000 – Introduction; Mrs. Niskenan is survivor of Finnish settlement southeast of Gackle in early 1900’s
020 – Family history
035 – History of Finnish settlement
050 – Homesteading
071 – Reason for family’s immigration from Finland
081 – Midwives of Gackle area
099 – Family history continued
120 – Niskenans’ courtship
125 – Elementary education
140 – Teachers in Gackle area
152 – Area settlers; German and Finnish
166 – Finnish expression
177 – How Finnish girls were raised
197 – Recreation
221 – Religion
231 – Finnish people emigrate from North Dakota
251 – Nonpartisan League leaders
272 – Farming during Depression
291 – Gardening
315 – Canning beef
330 – Milling flour at Kulm
338 – Baking
356 – Family recreation
368 – Farming with horses
374 – Threshing time
408 – Cooking for threshing crew
429 – Cook cars
520 – Threshing crew
577 – Niskenans’ marriage
622 – Social life
676 – Marketing grain
691 – Automobiles
715 – Flu epidemic of 1919
759 – Family history continued
780 – Community spirit; Family closeness
810 – Electricity
837 – Children’s education
840 – Change in quality of life
870 – Farm
875 – Raising turkeys
901 – Crops
929 – Finnish people
Comment:  Mrs. Niskenan worked on a cook crew and provides a good deal of information about what this was like.

Tape #10 And Side 2 (209) of Tape #9 Mr. Norbert Haut (Gackle)
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history; Father was original developer of Gackle
072 – Other prominent people of father’s era
100 – A.V. Lehr
138 – Electricity
142 – Other requests Mr. Haut has received for information; General comments
239 – Recreation in childhood
270 – Transportation in early times
274 – Charlie Walker
429 – Cattle rustling incident of 1919
515 – Family history; History of Haut store
574 – Starting brickyard
607 – Father working in store
690 – Rails in Gackle area
725 – History of Gackle; Buildings; Residents
775 – Building the Haut store
860 – Father’s business partnership
880 – Products first sold in store compared with products now sold in store
908 – Home generator
935 – Father gives business to son
956 – Nonpartisan League
012- Father’s involvement in politics
045 – Other prominent developers of Gackle and Logan County
122 – Why Mr. Haut stayed in area
174 – Store in Depression years
314 – Burning manure chips
333 – Quality of life – teens, 20’s, now
411 – Automobiles in early times
TAPE #9
209 – Introduction – continuation
231 – Nationalities in Gackle area
267 – Emigration of Finnish people from area
280 – Flu epidemic of 1919
304 – Converting building into hospital area
429 – Playing baseball in fields
449 – Recreation in winter; Skating, sledding
478 – Basket socials; Other forms of recreation
666 – Fourth of July celebrations

Tape #11 Mr. Ed Haag (Fredonia)
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history
036 – Parents’ emigration to Fredonia area
070 – Parents pick up buffalo bones from fields
090 – Other settlers in area
105 – Ellendale and Eureka
125 – Traveling to Eureka in 1888
144 – Early recollections of Fredonia
164 – First businesses in Fredonia
205 – Men who helped develop the area
250 – Father’s farm
266 – Influence of railroads in settling area
304 – Expanding farm
311 – Crops and farming in early 1900’s
382 – Recollections of Nonpartisan League
391 – Townley
446 – Langer
542 – Haug gets involved in politics during Depression
629 – Haug is member of State Legislature
711 – North Dakota politics
736 – Frazier
766 – Why Haug is Republican
779 – Depression in Fredonia
802 – New Deal
832 – Agricultural Adjustment Act
853 – New seeds; Livestock; Grains
889 – How people survived Depression in this area
937 – Farm program
985 – Quality of life – 30’s and present
007 – Social life 1910-1920 in Fredonia
034 – Dancing in German-Russian community
060 – Other nationalities in area
109 – Baseball team
164 – Threshing; Early farm machines
329 – Using thistle for bedding

Tape #12 Mr. Adam Masseth (Napoleon)
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history
118 – Towns close to Masseth homestead
145 – Sheep farming
154 – Deworming sheep
240 – “Wool pools”
291 – Adam Masseth’s marriage; Farming during the Depression
742 – Masseth’s children
770 – Masseth’s father and horse raising
801 – Farm machines
973 – Shearing sheep and biting nuts
007 – Storing, packing, and cutting manure
074 – Crops
140 – Soil conservation programs
227 – General comments on politics

Tape #13 Mr. Pius Reis (Napoleon)
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history; Immigration from Russia; Early memories of North Dakota
124 – Early farming methods
191 – Growing up on the farm
212 – How Pius acquired land; Lost farm; Bought it again
268 – Pius gets involved in politics; Becomes County Commissioner
281 – Memories of Bill Langer
373 – Memories of A. C. Townley
430 – More recollections of Langer
542 – Why NPL declined in influence
608 – Memories of Frazier
658 – Opinions about mechanization of farming
681 – Average size of farms in 20’s
703 – Reis family; Efforts to earn money outside of farming
759 – Pius works on WPA Project in 30’s; Wages
790 – Vegetable gardens
800 – Government commodities
821 – Making whiskey
866 – Storing vegetables in early times and at present
891 – Reis’s get electricity on farm
950 – Closeness of families in early times
975 – Family recreation on farm in 20’s and 30’s
025 – Pius’s experiences as county commissioner
059 – Education of Reis children
127 – Reis’s courtship
154 – Comments on nearby towns and situation of towns in North Dakota
263 – Organization of Farmers Union; Pius’s work as an organizer
447 – End of tape

Tape #14 Mr. and Mrs. Leroy “Pat” Burnstad
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history; His father’s cattle ranch
115 – Origin of towns of Burnstad
130 – Headquarters and operation of the ranch; Cattle diseases; fencing range land; powwows
207 – Wintering cattle and making hay
238 – Selling and shipping cattle; Branding cattle
314 – Buying cattle and horses in Montana
324 – Horse racing
350 – Breaking horses; Hired hands and their duties on the ranch
394 – His father’s personality and education
430 – His childhood responsibilities on the ranch
454 – Activities at “Field Days” (Rodeo) in Burnstad
509 – Breeding, raising, and training horses
565 – Other ranchers in the area; Sheep ranching
590 – Leasing school sections
605 – Decline of the Burnstad Ranch
617 – Driving cattle to and from the Wachter Ranch at Bismarck
703 – Decline and loss of the Burnstad Ranch
742 – Nonpartisan League activities in the area during WWI period and their opinions of William Langer
805 – His father’s businesses in Burnstad
822 – Nationalities in the Burnstad area
860 – Social life and entertainment; Modern Woodmen; Literary Society
949 – SIDE TWO
007 – Churches in Burnstad; Interdenominational activities and social life
060 – Neighborliness of people formerly and at present
089 – Recollections of colorful neighbors
181 – Churches and pastors in early Burnstad; Jewish families in town
211 – Origin of electrical service in Burnstad
220 – Hoist systems in early grain elevators
233 – Cutting and stacking hay with horses
278 – Hired help on the Burnstad Ranch
292 – Early businesses in Burnstad
328 – Bootlegging and Blind Pigs in Burnstad
380 – Dances and recreation at Red Lake
428 – Friendliness of Burnstad residents in early 1900’s
447 – Decline of Burnstad in 1920’s and 1930’s
555 – Itinerant peddlers and gypsies
600 – Soo Line R.R. service to Burnstad
634 – Early automobiles
651 – Hauling hay and traveling over snow with horses
769 – Their experiences as school teachers
897 – End of interview
Comment:  This is an outstanding interview that contains valuable information on early Burnstad and the large Burnstad Ranch

Tape #15 Mr. Albert Kelly (Napoleon)
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history; Family comes to North Dakota in 1902
044 – Early Napoleon
052 – Family history continued
071 – Elementary education
115 – Early residents of area
228 – Ferry across Missouri; Kelly travels to Montana in 1913
353 – Kelly works as deputy register of deed and carpenter
395 – Early Burnstad; Early musicians in the area
416 – Kellys’ courtship
447 – Flu epidemic of 1919
482 – Kelly resumes farming
618 – Farming and ranching during Depression years
648 – Kellys’ children
670 – Politics; Father was member IVA; State representative
740 – Math Dahl and Ben Meier
804 – Baseball games
940 – Neighborliness of people in area; Effect of automobiles on society
973 – Blind Pigs in Napoleon; Bootlegging liquor
019 – Comments on Women’s Movement
029 – Debates; Card games
122 – Wind charger on Kelly farm
172 – Telephone in 1909
211 – Gardening
262 – Opinions of New Deal programs; Comments on morale of people during Depression
286 – Leaders in development of Napoleon
331 – Comments on growing size of farms
371 – End of tape

Tape #16 Mr. and Mrs. John Gross (Napoleon)
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history; South Russia
143 – Threshing, first with horses, then with steam power
156 – Mortgage and loan practices in early 1900’s
200 – Family history continued
214 – Young Gross’s work on farm
257 – Gross’s education in English and German schools
331 – Marriage and farming; Building house and barn; Experiences during Depression
628 – Opinions about “radicalism” of 30’s
756 – Opinions about Langer
801 – Opinions about Frazier; Anecdote about Frazier and Gerald Nye
862 – Gross’s objections to NPL crossover to Democratic party
893 – Opinions about New Deal programs
934 – Opinions about soil conservation programs; Agricultural Adjustment Act
978 – Midwives in the area
014 – Depression experiences continued
127 – Community spirit and decline of area; Family life in 20’s and 30’s; Gross children
300 – Church services
424 – End of tape

Tape #17 Mr. and Mrs. Carl Lier (Napoleon)
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history
120 – Nearby towns; Threshing and transporting grain
200 – Lier swaps farms with brother
237 – Farming during Depression
342 – Schooling; Elementary and religious education at St. Anthony’s; School games
527 – Cutting and drying manure chips for heating
545 – Family history; Lier children
575 – Gardening and pickling; Preserving sauerkraut in barrels
670 – Preserving food in root cellars
830 – Lier’s farm – chicken, ducks, turkeys, geese, bees, sheep, pigs
SIDE TWO
980 – Raising tomatoes; “Hot caps”
060 – Fertilizing with sheep manure
103 – Raising sheep; Preserving mutton and pork in brine and smoking meat
202 – Liers’ courtship
237 – Baseball
248 – Electricity, first via motor then REA
294 – Early telephone
323 – Early radio
361 – Flu epidemic of 1918
378 – Home remedies
436 – Farming with horses; Breaking horses
498 – Ducks and geese; Size of flocks; Butchering
614 – End of tape
Comment:  The sections of gardening and preserving food (575-830) are especially informative.

Tape #18 Mr. F. T. C. “Fritz” Shepperd (Burnstad)
000 – Introduction
020 – Settlement in Burnstad area; Killing buffalo to drive away Indians
055 – Family history
122 – Other nationalities in area – German-Russians, Bulgarians, Swedes, Norwegians
159 – Other families in area; Selling buffalo bones for sugar and coffee
239 – Chauffeuring Bill Langer
313 – A. C. Townley – “money grabber”
368 – Entertainment during teens and 20’s; Orchestras; Whist; Basketball
423 – Prominent people in development of Burnstad area – Humphreys, horse thieves
671 – Starting Farmers Union Elevator in Burnstad
682 – C.P. Burnstad
SIDE 2
934 – Father helps with first oil drilling; More stories about C.P. Burnstad; Other early settlers; First stores in
041 – Shepperd works on WPA during Depression; Parents’ experiences teaching school and running store and acquiring land
124 – More stories about Langer
148 – Usher Burdick
170 – Political stories; Langer again
293 – How Shepperds met
364 – End of tape

Tape #19 Mr. J. M. Hummel (Pelican Rapids, MN)
000 – Family history; Hummel leaves Russia rather than go in army; Immigrates to Anamoose and Turtle Lake; Moves to Ashley
137 – Hummel goes to Nebraska to go to college; Homesteads in Isabel, South Dakota in 1911
236 – Hummel moves to Gackle; Starts store
388 – Hummel sells store in 1918; Becomes part owner of bank
625 – Political activity in Gackle area; Opinions of Nonpartisan League; Anecdote about Langer; Banking business during Depression
SIDE 2
956 – Prominent people who helped develop Gackle
987 – Henry Timm, John Wishek; Working as auctioneer
252 – Hummel’s courtship; Dances in Gackle
358 – Hummel helps build City Hall in Gackle
396 – Hummel runs for state senator against Cryser
567 – Livestock train in Gackle
614 – Opinions about New Deal
665 – Farmers’ cooperatives
704 – Opinions about Farmers’ Holiday Association
871 – End of tape

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