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Manuscripts - ND Oral History Collection - 10157 - Billings County

Billings County

Region Ten
1 Jim Tescher, Sentinel Butte 0059A & B
2 Eva Hayden & Jack Geary, Belfield 0060A & B
3 Don L. Short, Medora 0061A & B
4 Ralph “Doc” Hubbard, Medora 0063A & B
5 Lena Vanvig, Medora 0065A & B
6 Stack Ripley, Medora 0066A & B
7 Mr. and Mrs. Jack Connell, Medora 0067A & B
8 Ada Sylvester, Medora 0068A & B
9 Mr. and Mrs. “Sheriff” Cornell, Medora 0069A & B
10 Dave McLeod, Medora 0070A & B
11 Ann Brown, Medora 0071A & B
12 “Badlands” Bill Jaborski, Belfield 0072A & B
13 Allan Thompson, Fairfield 0073A
14 Hazel Schlagen, Killdeer 0073B
15 Viola Ray, Medora 0074A & B
16 Peter Basaraba & Joe Hecker, Belfield 0075A & B

Tape #1 Jim Tescher (Sentinel Butte)
000 – Introduction
020 – Ray Zinsli; Family history; Begins riding; Family gets measles; Making a living during 30’s; Buying cheese at a store; A neighbor; Price of groceries; People leave.
118 – Settlement of northern Golden Valley; Settlers move West; Teschers consider leaving in 30’s; Buy land; Raises some cattle and horses; Sell cattle to government; Shipping points; Interest in rodeo; Breaking Percherons; The raising of Percherons.
229 – Market for horses in 30’s; Price of horses decreases; The matching pair of work horses; Life of a work horse.
336 – Making a living in 30’s; Working with machinery and horses; Chores; Young people leave home, past and present; The cowboys; Attends first rodeo; Rides in exhibition rodeo.
453 – Reasons for rodeo; Gets married; Buys cattle; Works at Schnel’s Livestock; Cattle prices in 1953; Rodeo riders when a boy; Begins rodeoing; Quality of cowboys; Strength of competition; Quality of horses.
622 – Predicting personality of rodeo animals; Riding a bull; Cowboys riding years; Competes out of state; Plans trips to rodeos; Rodeo newspaper.
764 – Competing out of state; Jim’s success begins; Competing in large rodeos.
916 – Favorite rodeo events; Rodeo prizes; Qualifications of a rodeo; Entering a number of events; Profits.
033 – Fear of injury
107 – SIDE TWO.  Injuries; Mental fatigue; Extent of rodeoing; Rules of becoming a champion; Wins runner up; Pressures of rodeo; Mental preparation; Bulldogging at New York. 
206 – Favorite cowboys; Arguments at rodeos; He judges at some rodeos; Casey’s rodeo manner
307 – Jim rides bulls; Anecdote about riding a bull at Madison; Bulls receive names; Effects of bull riding; Falling from horses and bulls; Characteristics of bull riders and bulldoggers.
452 – Bulldogging horses; Working a bulldogging horse; Choosing rodeo judges; Quality of today’s riders.
559 – Rodeo stock; Today’s rodeo profits; Paying for his ranch; Rodeo earnings; Rodeo cliques.
689 – Today’s breed of cowboys; Rodeoing becomes a profession; Favorite rodeos; Compares riding “good” and “bad” steers.
808 – Effect of crowds; Importance of liking or the disliking of animals; “Bad blood” in horses.
890 – End of interview
Comment:  Jim’s interview is completely about his experience as a rodeo cowboy and the organization of rodeos

Tape #2 Mrs. Eva Hayden and Jack Geary (Belfield)
000 – Introduction
020 – Her family history; Moves to North Dakota; Homestead site; Opinion of prairie; School; Immigrant car; Arriving in North Dakota
128 – Siblings; Anecdote about lives lost in prairie fire; The winter of 1906; Heating a shanty; Neighbors
237 – Nationalities; Animosity between homesteaders; Providing supplies the winter of homesteading; Homesteaders leave; “Proving up”; General description of settlers; Farming with oxen
343 – Breaking sod; Cannonball River floods; Prairie fires; A flax burner
460 – Fuel for cook stoves; Ranchers; Homesteader and rancher conflicts; Palasier family
560 – Palasier family; Alec LaSota; Lightning strikes horses; A well; Education
758 –Begins teaching; Freezes hands and feet traveling to school; Heat in school
832 – SIDE TWO – Teaches school; Teaching salary; Board and the room; Meets husband; Husband’s family history; Social life; Traveling to a dance; Other towns and the post offices
975 – Milwaukee Railroad line; Marketing sheep wool; Dividing grazing between sheep men and ranchers; Musicians; Dances; Eva likes horses; Midway businesses
074 – Surveying railroad; “Blind Pigs”; Businesses; Belfield’s trading area; Fryburg; Sheep country; Shipping point
175 – Trips to town; Sharpening plow lays; Making a living; Buys land; People leave in 1919 and 30’s; 1919 in area; 1918 epidemic
277 – Hospital; Doctor; 1918 influenza epidemic; Taverns; The coyote bounty; Promiscuity
410 – A “character” settler; School textbooks; Desks; Mr. Bill McCarty
533 – “Shy” Otto; Palasier family; Husband homesteads; Burning coal mines; Homestead buildings; Submarginal land
656 – End of interview
Comment:  Eva does most of the talking with Jack offering intermediate comment.  A detailed description of a flax burner accentuates this interview.

Tape #3 Don Short (Medora)
Tape A
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history; Log house; Beach; Family history; The settlement of the area
130 – Railroad at Medora; Ranches; Settlers along river; Prices of land; Ranches fail; Builds house; Raising horses; A few settlers own land; Leasing railroad land
250 – Surveying land; School; His education; Medora school; Speaking English in schools; Nationalities; Foreigners adjust to farming to North Dakota
376 – Prosperous immigrants; Ranches; Government land buying in 30’s; Farm Security Bureau
490 – Sells horses; Purchases cattle from HT ranch; Settlers file on 640 acres; Grazing land; Ownership of cattle is limited; Grazing Association is organized; Homesteaders leave in 30’s; Price of steers
590 – Sells wool; Submarginal land; Price of meals; The feed programs; Relief programs; Government buys cattle; Don sells cattle
701 – Family’s ranch converts to cattle; Plowing river bottom; Feed for cattle; Cattle die; Irrigation; A severe winter
802 – Sell grain at Medora; Seeding farmland; Farming along the river; Farming declines; Raising corn; Winter feed production; Grazing restrictions; Common pasture
012 – Size of ranches; A large rancher; Winter of 1919-1920; The hay for cattle
102 – SIDE TWO – Settlers arrive in area; Ranch at Bantry; the Nicolson ranch at Sentinel Butte; Shorts raise horses; Farming with horses; Sells horses
200 – Kinds of horses; HT ranch; Shorts buy HT livestock; Mail carriers; Medora, Fryburg and Sentinel Butte; Travel along Little Missouri River
323 – Horses swim river; Crossing river; Graded roads; WPA; The cowboys; Trail herds; Ranch hands; Cedar posts
454 – Medora’s reputation; Dray line; Ice house; Cowboys; The wildlife; T. Roosevelt’s hunting; Wildlife; Wolves
617 – Fences; Abandoned and reserved land; Coal; Buys cattle; Buys land after World War II; The family’s land; Filing fee; Roundups
735 – Medora Grazing Association; Grazing permits; Hardships of pioneers; Doctors; Care of ill children; Shopping at the city of Dickinson; Buffalo Bill; Other towns
039 – The cowboy’s entertainment; Standing guard with cattle; The shipping of cattle; Ranchers travel together shipping the livestock
197 – End of tape A
Tape B
199 – Timber along river; Construction of log house; The fence posts; Shipping points; Shipping point at Medora; The trucking of cattle; Sales barn
324 – Weighing cattle; Teachers homestead; Homestead laws; 1918 influenza epidemic; Pneumonia; People die
444 – Dances; Visiting; Enmity among ranchers and homesteaders; Sheep
585 – Shearing sheep; Medora Grazing Association; Bankhead and Jones Farm Tenant Act
694 – Government buys classified land; Preference permit; The government buys land
912 – Government buys large sheep ranch; renovates buildings and builds fence; Grazing allocations
014 – Size of grazing permits
034 – SIDE TWO – Grazing permits; Grazing fees; Seasonal grazing; Water; Forest Service works with Grazing Association; The water development; Chateau de Mores
134 – Chateau de Mores; Marquis de Mores; Packing plane; The rejuvenating of Medora
232 – County seat; Gerald Nye; Bill Langer; Corporate farming; Value of land
395 – General opinion of early state politics; G. Bridgston; The enmity between W. Langer and G. Bridgston
495 – Don nominated for United States Congress; Agricultural Committee; Opinion of committee chairmen; Mr. Wilbur Mills; Opinion of U. Burdick’s political life, dress code, farm, and personal life
615 – Don’s health; Agrarian improvements
698 – End of interview
Comment:  Don’s conversation centers around ranch life in western North Dakota.  He does discuss the Medora Grazing Association to great extent.  Only a small part of his political life is covered here.

Tape #4 Ralph “Doc” Hubbard (Medora)
Tape A
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history; J. Crawford and B. Coty
123 – Marquis stage; Scouting program; Rose Crows Fly High
265 – Ida Hall; Indian treaties concerning construction and the dams; American Indian Movement; Builds museum; Moves to North Dakota; Family history
397 – Reason for settling in area; Meets T. Roosevelt; Buffalo hunting; Message to Garcia; National Parks Service; P. Wibaux; Stagecoaches; Burlington and Northern Pacific Railroads
488 – Teaches on Crow reservation; Works with Indian CCC; The teaching of Indians to dance; CCC; Setting up tepees; Domestic life of Indians
648 – Dust storms in Medora; Custer battle; Two Shields; Crow Man; Indian dance hall; Military post at Fort Yates; The veterans of Custer battle
748 – Veterans of Custer battle; Story of preparation of Custer battle; American Bureau of Ethnology reports
848 – Sitting Bull’s movements during Custer battle; The Indians that followed Sitting Bull in Canada
990 – Sitting Bull is murdered; James McLaughlin; VIA; Spotted Tail
104 – SIDE TWO – Message to Garcia; Jack Crawford; Indians and Whites attend school at Fort Yates; Restoration displays
243 – Dawes Act is changed to aid Indians; Red Jacket; Mr. John Grass; Tecumseh; Significance of peace pipe; Ben Reifel; Jack Crawford; Cody
351 – Museum about J. Crawford; Meets B. Cody; B. Cody’s parade; Indians in parade; Whirlwind Horse; Bill Whirlwind Horse
480 – A robe at Custer battle; Organization of Sioux tribe; The chieftains; Photograph of Crazy Horse
583 – Last big buffalo hunt; L.A. Hoffman; photographer; Curly, Crow survivor of Custer battle
724 – Negro blood married with Crow;  Sioux marriage; Chastity; Morality; Immorality at Rose Bud; Standing Rock Reservation; Virginia Nelsen
845 – Faults of history in education; Lincoln-Douglas debates; The problems interviewing Indians
Tape B
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history; T. Roosevelt’s activities at Medora; The stagecoaches; Burlington Northern Railroad; Hotel; The Marquis de Mores
170 – Marquis de Mores; Refrigerated cars; Travels to Europe; The Marquis’ personality; de Mores murders a man; Family history
336 – Family history; Cowboys; Large ranchers; Today’s presentation of the old West
495 – Early buildings; Raising cattle in town; Original buildings; Roughrider Hotel; Miles City, Montana; Virginian
650 – “Tourist traps”; Passenger trains; Cordiality of North Dakotans
700 – Horseshoeing; Dramatizations prepared for tourists; Social “rhythm” of Medora
839 – Tourists visit Medora with horses; Charles Russell
939 – Charles Russell stories
069 – Mrs. Charles Russell
117 – SIDE TWO – Rounding up horses; Corral gate; Stagecoach horses; Driving a stage; Herd of buffalo
225 – Wolves; Stories about wolves; Desirability of Badlands
334 – Hunting; Buffalo skulls; Homestead location; the coal development
434 – Coal development; Optimism for the future; Reasons for living in North Dakota; Criminality; Family life
545 – Neighborliness; Doctor; John Tyler; Hospitality to the Negro people; “The good old days”
669 – Working with oxen; Authors that “Doc” Hubbard met and also studied
769 – More authors; his education; Works with museums; Crafts
993 – Canning; Meals; Chuck wagons; An accident
093 – An accident; Brotherhood; Dried fruit; Making a splint
237 – End of interview
Comment:  Ralph also discusses the history of Medora, Charles Russell, authors, Jack Crawford, John Tyler, Marquis de Mores, and wolves.  The entire conversation is a valuable addition to the history of the state

Tape #5 Lena Vanvig (Medora)
000 – Introduction
020 – Moves to North Dakota; Meets husband; Moving to the United States; Family history; Her husband; Sod house; Becomes married; Children
130 – Homestead location; Closest town; Builds rack; A walking plow; Building sod house; Seeding; Farming with oxen; Farmland; Crops; Cooks for threshing crew; Planting wheat and flax; Threshing machine; Cisterns
229 – Impression of North Dakota; School; Log building; Hauls water; Move from homestead; stove; Rent and buy land
343 – Fuel; Other settlers; Nationalities; Enmity between the ranchers and homesteaders; a rancher
448 – Logging camp; Homesteaders; Neighborliness; Owner of the logging camp; Move from homestead; Move to Medora
551 – Works with doctor; A midwife; Saving life of a baby; A doctor; Saving other babies; Furniture
653 – Groceries; Furniture; Wildlife fowl; Sod house; A log house; Calsimine a wall
768 – Hauling water; A cistern; Laundry; Discouragement
869 – Evenings at home; Other towns; Trips to town; Grocery bills; Canning; Traveling to Sentinel Butte; Elevator; Buys groceries; Makes syrup
075 – Travels back to Medora
SIDE TWO
100 – Neighborliness; Influenza epidemic; Entertainment; The musicians; Old-timers; John Tyler, a Negro
200 – Negro families; Ranches; Cowboys; Reasons for “good old days”; Buys automobile
299 – Negro families; Ranches; Reasons for “good old days”; Story about driving an automobile; walks home; The milking of cows; Getting groceries; Riding horses; Handly Post Office; Road to Medora; Riverbank; Wolves and the coyotes 
402 – Bobcats; Beaver; Deer; Neighborliness; Neighbors; The rodeos; Rodeo riders; Pestilence in 30’s; Lose cattle; Work on chicken ranch; Employment that she and husband held during 30’s; Move to another home
518 – Rebuilding cattle herd; Works in hatchery; WPA; Canning; Sell vegetables; Basement; (Short part on tape where there is no sound)
668 – WPA; Sells homestead; Government land; A roundup; The fencing
779 – Vegetation in Badlands; Kinds of cattle; Cowboys stay overnight; Six-Shooter Slim; Other cowboys
929 – School; Teachers’ board; Where teachers came from; Board costs; Moves into town
070 – Utilities; Delco plants, wind chargers; Opinion of North Dakota and changes
200 – End of interview
Comment:  Lena has a pleasant voice and an attractive personality.  She discusses the building of sod houses and tells stories about the ranchers and homesteaders, being a midwife, purchasing groceries, Negro families, and cowboys.

Tape #6 Interview is unreleased

Tape #7 Mr. and Mrs. Jack Connell (Mandan)
000 – Introduction
024 – His family history; Other settlers; Kind of land; Moves from homestead; School; Roughrider Hotel
135 – Cowboys; “Cowboys Day”; Bootlegger; A millionaire; Mr. Bill McCardy; Jim Tescher; Louis Palasier; Bill Chandler; Alex LaSota; Rodeos; Change in rodeo horses
243 – Shipping point for cattle; Trail herds; Holding yard; Ranches; Logging camp T. Roosevelt’s shack; Rowdiness at Medora; Moves to town; Operate Roughrider Hotel; The neighborliness; Dances; Musicians; Medora’s size; High school
344 – Businesses; Population; Taverns; Prohibition; The rodeo money; Story about drunken rodeo riders; Rodeo promoters and sponsor; Works with Neumans; Arid land in 30’s; Sell cattle; Shipping cattle by truck
443 - Begins ranching; Location of ranch; Various jobs he held; Government kills cattle; Morale in 30’s; WPA cattle project; Cattle prices; Butchered cattle given to residents of county; Ukrainian settlement; Distribution of the food during 30’s
560 – WPA park; WPA employees; Banks close; Lose money; The enmity when banks fail; Breed of cattle; Ranchers improve cattle; Best breeds of cattle
676 – Cause of cattle losses; Care of cattle; The Grazing Association; Reasons for government buying land; People leave; Leasing land; Land lost for taxes; Commensurate land
805 – Mineral rights; Grazing acreage for cattle; Development of coal; Oil; Tourist attraction
944 – Electricity; Icebox; Insulation in ice house or dugout; Fuel; Source of ice; Icebox
044 – Delco plants; Wind charger; Her family history; A Delco plant; Telephone
117 – SIDE TWO – Telephone; Popularity of NPL; IVA; A Langer rally; F.D.R.’s popularity in 30’s; WPA eligibility; Commodities; Butchering; Severe years during depression; Care of cattle at yards; Ordering cars; Herding cattle to yards
226 – Threshing together; Sociability; Problems of ranching; Shipping fever; Popularity of ranching; Feeder cattle; Cattle permits; Effect of grading beef
330 – Horse prices; Wildlife; “Dancing ground” of the prairie chickens; Hunting wolves; Coyotes; Rattlers
430 – Stories about rattlesnakes; Bites; More stories; The siblings; Changes in family life; Evenings at home; Dances; Cards; Babysitters
543 – Operating Roughrider in 30’s; Sells Roughrider; Guests; Bar; Meals; Hotels; County Seat; Post offices; Inland towns; Mail; Mail carrier; Buying supplies
646 – Gardening; Cellars; Water; WPA fences; Government buys submarginal land; Post cutting; Opinion of Badlands and North Dakota
746 – Kinds of grass; Crested wheat; Controlled grazing; Hay on government land; Winter feeding of cattle; Snow; The churches; Nationalities; Oldest buildings
898 – Jim Folley; Art gallery
917 – End of interview
Comment:  Mr. and Mrs. Connell’s interview is of historical value.  They discuss Medora’s colorful ranching days, most facets of raising and selling cattle, land, and the Roughrider Hotel

Tape #8 Ada Sylvester (Medora)
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history; Shack; Trip to United States; Homestead location; Files on land; Reasons for moving to the state of North Dakota; Immigrant car; Stowaways; Reach town of Belfield; Move into Chinese restaurant; Works in the restaurant
180 – Move to Badlands; A washout; Calf dies; House; Bedbugs; Breaks land; Sods up house; Sleeps in hammock; Plowing with oxen; Cattle break fence; Problems with a rancher owning horses
295 – Black Pig disease; Hauls water; Neighbors give them some beans; Other settlers; School; Church; Minister’s salary; Walks to school; A horse accident; She teaches school
293 – Father’s illness; Smuggling liquor; Burying her father; Impression of Badlands; Straw stacks; Homestead; Buys cattle; Rents land; Dragged by horse; Hailstorm; An injured hand; Attends summer school
535 – Nationalities; Neighbors; Siblings; Guests; Jolly Rover Club; Winter entertainment; Skis and toboggan; A skiing party
699 – Brothers take over farm; Friendliness between ranchers and homesteaders; Old-timers; Sheep; Becomes more successful
801 – Musicians; Phonograph; Fiddler; Congeniality; The box socials; Money for Red Cross; A sweater mailed to France
935 – A sweater mailed to France; Doctor; Remedies; Wards and Watkins men; Gypsies; Influenza epidemic; A First Aid kit
100 – SIDE TWO – 1918 influenza epidemic; Becomes ill; Teaches school; A flood; School in bunkhouse; Education; The schoolhouse; Teachers school; Continues education; Moves to Idaho; Gets married
214 – Garden; Meat; Fruit; Sewing; Siblings; Parents die; “The good old days”; Family life; Makes rugs and quilts; A horse powered grinder; Flour; Breakfast food; A flour mill
324 – Wheat prices; Hauling grain; Flour; Bill’s family history; Red Cloud; Meets Bill; Cowboys; The personality of cowboys; Dances; Cowboys marry; Gets married; Flood at Wibaux
445 – Begin ranching; Sells ranch; The 30’s; Buy hay; The gardening; A frost in July; Cattle prices; Rust in the wheat; Government buys land; CCC destroys buildings; A saw mill; Sell cedar posts
583 – Farms in Red River Valley available to western residents in 30’s; Move to farm; Grasshoppers
687 – Attempts to buy house at Belfield; WPA destroys house; Submarginal land; Grazing fees; Reason for government destroying buildings; NPL incorrectly influences voting
811 – Stops farming; Rationing of meat; Rebuild church into apartments; Buy house; Teaches school; Goes West
936 – Remodel hotel; Opinion of North Dakota coal development; Roads; Land and machinery prices; Electricity
046 – Plowing with oxen
059 – End of interview
Comment:  Ada’s conversation is an asset to North Dakota’s history.  Unusual comments are about destructive WPA and CCC activity

Tape #9 Mr. and Mrs. Ted “Sheriff” Cornell (Medora)
000 – Introduction
020 – Weather conditions; His family history; Works with Custer Trail ranch; Locations of homesteads; Homestead laws; A shack; Winter of 1886 – 87
121 – Log camp; T. Roosevelt’s cabin; Custer Trail Dude Ranch; Log house; Neighbors; Walking to school; Siblings; The Bullion Butte; Farm women work together
221 – Icehouses; Schools; Population of school age children; Success of ranching; Past and present satisfaction with life; Rarity of oranges; Preparing for winter; The mail ordering; Mailman; Trips to town; Trading wheat for flour; Scarlet fever; Elevators; Crossing river; Hauling supplies; River rises
332 – Picnics; Baseball; Horseshoe; Musicians; Hunting and trapping; Bobcats; Bounties; Magpies eat homemade soap; Swimming; Fishing; Canning berries; Deer meat; The 30’s; Fences; Little Missouri dries; Making a living during the 30’s; Self-sufficiency; Old Red Trail; L. Palasier; Ted has a ruptured appendicitis; Anesthetics
578 – WPA; CCC; Submarginal land; Grazing limits; Size of the farms; Cost of machinery; Family grocery store; Buying groceries; Kerosene; Rationing
753 – Congeniality; Ranchers work together; Storing coal and ice; Hauling ice; Icehouse
855 – SIDE TWO – Tomatoes; Root cellar; Garden soil; Process of fertilizing; Grass; Artesian wells; Cowboys; 3-7’s ranch; Cowboys; Ben Byrd; Compares rodeo cowboys and the original cowboys; J. Tescher; Horses
962 – Wild horses; Bareback horse riding; B. Atchkins; Circuit riders; B. Linderman; Rodeo riders; Trail herds; The remuda; Chuckwagon; Meals; Rope corral; Marmarth
063 – A murder at Marmarth; Selling cattle to a cannery; The light bulb; Fishing; Preparing catfish; Bullheads; Rabbits; Gun; Wild fowl
073 – Wild fowl; Last wolf is killed; Stack Ripley; Music; A dance hall; “Blind Pigs”; “Moonshine”; First engineer of the 5000; T. Grant
321 – Cemetery; Family history; T. Roosevelt buys cattle; A house; T. Roosevelt campaigns; Bull Moose Party; Owner of Maltese Cross
431 – Foreman of HT; Mail carrier; Wolf hunter with HT; Tanning skins; Patrons of Custer Dude Ranch; King ranch
565 – Present image of cowboys; Building log cabins; Coal mines; Marquis de Mores store; Construction of store
683 – Medora’s size; Stores
706 – End of interview
Comment:  Ted has a good memory.  The interview absorbs the colorful early, wild, and western atmosphere of the area.

Tape #10 Dave McLeod (Medora)
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history; Herding sheep in winter of 1898; Father has limbs amputated; His partner; Homestead; Tree claim
158 – Grazing; Golden spike; “Bloomer” crop; Move to Medora; Steam rigs; Gas rigs; Livestock they owned; Building immigrant cars; Opinion of North Dakota; Homestead; Dave’s family history; End of railroad
268 – Siblings; Homestead buildings; Herding cattle; Shacks; A horse thief; Military service; Gets married; A comical anecdote about his wife; Trailing a horse herd; Hardy, a Belfield businessman
412 – Shipping stolen horses; A horse sale; Profits from horse sale; Reward for Hardy; Hardy’s punishment; Neighbors; Old-timers; Parker family; Neighbors
620 – Wife breaks leg; Fencing; Wife has surgery; Book is written about him; Vacation
740 – L. Palasier; Harmons; Libauxs; W. Smith; E. Clarke; The army purchases horses; Rides army horses; J. Perkins; G. Garner tours Europe with Buffalo Bill
875 – “Bucking out” horses; A cattleman; Riding a bronc mare; Elmer Clarke; Alex LaSota; Scott Gores; Other cowboys; Killdeer Mountains rodeo; S. Gores
974 – S. Gores “breaks” a horse; A. LaSota; “Little britches” rodeos; Effects of rodeo riding; Dave’s riding experience; Livestock shipping points
108 – SIDE TWO – Father loses land; Dry years; Railroad and the school sections; Taxes increase; Submarginal land; The commensurate land; Buys land; Grazing rights; Buys land; Grazing rights; Buys land; Comments about Don Short’s land and character
215 – Selling horses and cattle; Cattle prices in 1927; Rents land; Leases land; Buys Randall land; Tepees; A stone house; Bellows ranch; A skylight in a building; The first cattle ranch along Missouri River
369 – Buys land; Cuts hay; Grazing land; Cattle prices in 30’s; Open range; Horse thieves; Range wars; Government prices for land; Prices today
481 – A roundup; Locating roundup wagon; John LaKee; “Holding bunch”; Branding; Trail herding in river bottoms; The wild cattle; A stampede
594- Quality of cattle they herded; He guards on Garder Plateau; A lightning storm; Cut out McLeod’s beef; Names of areas of the trail; Make camp; Cut and load cattle
708 – Castrating; Infection; Spraying
821 – Bill Sylvester; Grass in 1935; Cattle prices; Losses in 1919; Roundup meals
935 – Cowboys on 1912 roundup; Trail horses; Appaloosas; Riding Palominos for trail rides; Breaking horses; An exceptional horse 
096 – Market for horses; Wild horses; Government horses; Mr. Ben Byrd
213 – End of interview
Comment:  Dave has a good memory.  He talks indistinctly at times causing the necessity to listen more carefully.  The largest part of the interview is about the places, meals, and problems of a roundup.  The state gains descriptions of land, raising horses and beef, and cowboys.

Tape #11 Ann Brown (Medora)
000 – Introduction
020 – Cattle ranch; Teaching positions; Husband’s employment; Antique shop
119 – Husband’s family history; Siblings; Moves to Billings County; Teaching positions; County Superintendent; Ann’s opinion of Badlands; Bachelors; Teachers; Boards; She gets married; Husband ranches; Husband’s homestead
223 – Tracy Mountain; Nationalities; Closes town; Businesses; Fryburg declines; G. P. Nye’s newspaper; G. P. Nye
334 – Syrians; Sidewalks at Fryburg; Stores; Cutting a man’s hair in a comical style; Contaminated water; A well; Automobiles; “Pouring method”; Difficult times; Students’ lunches
430 – Board and room; Hot meals in school; Salary; Shares her lunch with students; Story about a mule from first grader; Nationalities; Ukrainians; Reason for difficult times; People prosper; Lack of education; Educational requirements; Eighth grade graduates
598 – Schools along river; School enrollment; Advantages of the rural schools; Discipline; Quality of rural school; Her son
691 – Enforcing school attendance via parent imprisonment; The Supreme Court rules on school attendance; Conditions of roads
800 – Clearing paths to schools; Becomes stalled motoring school board to school; Trial; Her election opposition; Works with Red Cross; Red Cross disperses food; Hunger in 20’s and 30’s; Poor crops and garden
925 – Present vegetation in Badlands; Hunger in Ukrainian settlement; Students’ lunches and apparel; Baths
106 – SIDE TWO – Bathtubs; Story about bodily cleanliness; The changes in opinions of education and disciplinary measures; Social status of young people; Boards students; Proprietorship of grocery store; Credit; Filling County Superintendent’s office
233 – Changes in opportunity for success; Organizations that she enjoyed; Receiving payment for credit in the grocery store; Grocery stock; Collecting grocery credit; Compares the shopping digression
333 – Anecdote about a lost twenty dollars; People leave in the 30’s; Morals; Farmer constructs Quonset for Ann; The primitive farming; camaraderie of people; Television
444 – Picnics; Reasons for “good old days”; Political bickering and rivalry between towns; The party system; Opinion of Langer and Townley; Political emotionality; Narrow-mindedness; Women’s interest in husband’s work; The babysitters; Story exemplifying sharing
627 – Reputation of cowboys; Entertaining old-timers; Cowboys’ reputation for politeness
858 – Husband dies; G. P. Nye’s opinion of World War II ammunition makers; Don Short; Visiting schools; Caliber of teachers; Teacher recommendations; Disciplinary problems
030 – School funds; Travelling library; Textbooks; Enmity between rural and city students; Social strata between farmers and ranchers
130 – Social strata between farmers and ranchers; The family management
212 – End of interview
Comment:  Ann’s interview is an asset to the history of the state. Education is the foremost topic of conversation

Tape #12 “Badlands Bill” Jaborski (Belfield)
000 – Introduction
020 – Reasons for moving to North Dakota; Ukrainian area; Family history; Immigrant workers; A mine; Making a living; The homestead; Description of land; Buys machinery; Scarcity of money; Trapping
125 – Arthritis; Lives with mother; Surgery; Stays on father’s farm; Buys ranch; Sells ranch; Wild game; Begins his trapping; Checking traps; Reasons for trapping
229 – Kinds of traps; Learning to trap; Scent sets; The trapping of coyotes; Wolves; Coyotes; Poison; Government hunter; Aerial hunting
339 – Hunting coyotes; Foxes; Coyote bounty; Beaver; The other wildlife; Weather destroys animals; Trapping bobcats; The scent sets; Gland lure; Other lures
456 – Specialized trapping; Trapping mink and muskrat; The line sets; Raccoon; Animal population; Diseases; The steel traps; Pain of traps; Lynx; Otter
570 – Trappers; Sets; Coyotes; Scent sets; Trap robbers; Minks; Trapping as a livelihood
678 – Trapping in winter; Trapping in winter; Trapping coyotes and fox; Scent sets; Books about setting traps; A famous trapper; Sells urine; Other scents; Gloves; The animals approach trap
778 – Line traps; Fox and coyotes; Length of line; The trapping area
936 – Attractiveness of the Badlands; Opinion of North Dakota; Siblings; Responsibility of young people; Making a living; Difficult times in 30’s; Relief; WPA
081 – Sells land to government
097 – SIDE TWO – Commensurate land; Discouragement in 30’s; The friendliness; Employment and salaries; Neighbors work together; Horses; Dogs; Story about talking to dogs in a difficult language
214 – Rodeos; Teschers; Quality of riders; Skinning animals; Fur trade; Price of skins; Skinning; Stretchers; Fox; Coyote
334 – Magpies; Coons; Magpies kill cattle; Rattlesnakes; Venom
439 – Coal development; Human effect on Badlands; Moisture; The garden; Water; Cistern; Water in 1936-37
556 – Wind chargers; Batteries; Power packs; Radio; Snowmobiles; River; Fish; Rabbits; Beaver; Raccoon; Porcupines
697 – Protecting gardens
723 – End of interview
Comment:  Bill’s interview is mainly concerned with the trapping of wildlife

Tape #13 Allan Thompson (Fairfield)
000 – Introduction
020 – Reasons for moving to North Dakota; Population; Ukrainian settlement; Church; Recruiting homesteaders; Homestead; Nationalities; Buildings; Sod and rock houses; Animals that were raised; Grazing; Grass; Rocks; Flax; Hay; Railroad land
123 – Dry years; Moisture; Steamers; Homesteads; Siblings; Opinion of North Dakota hospitality; Post offices and the towns; Mail; People leave; Shopping towns; Stores
247 – Hunting; Prairie chickens; Canning; Butchering; The supplies; Mail order companies; Grinding flour; Rye; Badlands; Buys land; Ranchers; Upgrading stock; Free range; Horses
366 – A buyer; Price of horses; Kinds of horses; Oxen; Difficult times in teens; Grasshoppers; Poison; Drought; A severe winter
476 – Doctor; Midwife; Influenza epidemic; Crops and prices during 20’s; Feeding thistle; Feeding in 1934-36; Allen decreases cattle; Cottonseed cake; Moisture and crop in 1935-37; Better years; Discouragement
578 – School; Teachers; Salaries in 30’s; Warrants; Financial problems; WPA manpower; Haul scoria; Submarginal land; Grazing rights; Sells land; Grazing rights
696 – Opinion of WPA; Threshing machine; Meals; Threshers; The quality of threshers; Names of rigs; County agent; Dust storms; Grasshoppers
838 – Worms; Coping with another depression; 1933-35; Government slaughters cattle; Straw; Burning straw; Strength of NPL; Langer rally; Recall Election
009 – Father’s political office; Holiday Association; Electricity; Delco plants; Loss of land in 30’s; Buys land; Bachelors
094 – End of interview
Comment:  Allan’s conversation about the western part of North Dakota is a general history of the early days.

Tape #14 Hazel Schlagen (Killdeer)
000 – Introduction
020 – Reason for moving to North Dakota; Grass; Fences; Story about mother being lost; Family history; Nationalities; School; Students; Siblings; Homesteaders
116 – Children’s play; Homestead buildings; Water; Fuel; Mine; Fayette; Catalog ordering; Mail; Mailman; Route; The railroad; Road; Marketing cattle; Mail; Buying supplies
228 – Ranches; Fences cause animosity; Cowboys; Nationalities; Riding a steer; Neighbors; Riding horse; Chores; The variations of working tastes among ethnic groups
338 – Opinion of North Dakota; Dances; House parties; Church; Minister; Socials; Musicians; Phonograph; Cowboys attend dances; Religious and nationality enmity; Religious beliefs
439 – Neighborliness; Education; Boards in town; Riding a truck to school; Highway; School; Teachers; The manner in which teachers combed hair; A Christmas program; Popularity of the teachers
538 – Furthers education; Teaches school; Gets married; Depression years; Moves; Students’ clothing and apparel exemplify the depression; Salary; Commodities; Story about burying raisins; Commodity forms
641 – Meals at school; Discouragement; WPA; CCC; Roosevelt’s popularity; Welfare; Feeding straw and Russian thistle; The League’s popularity; Republican Party; Farmers Union; The Farm Bureau
782 – Farmers Union; Active NPL; Women’s Suffrage; “Home brew”; Bootlegging; Intoxication
908 – Influenza epidemic; A neighbor moves; Buys land; Courtship; Winter sports
046 – Coal development; Family life
098 – End of interview

Tape #15 Viola Ray (Medora)
000 – Introduction
020 – Family history; Marquis de Mores and boy murdered; Reason for moving to North Dakota; Dr. Stickney and wife; Homestead; Lives in courthouse
169 – Works on ranches; Meat for railroad men; Ray’s ranch; Ray Hotel; Roundups; Bellows ranch; Rock house; Post office; Cowboys; Friendliness to travelers; Moves into town; The Bellows ranch rider
271 – Billy Timens; Alex LaSota; Ranchers; S. Gore; Mr. Bill Chandler; The Blackburns; Neighbors; Managers of the Bellows ranch
403 – Gets married; Moves to town; Mine; Buys ranch; Siblings; Life of ranch in 1906-10; Winters; Log house; Fuel; Ice; Riding horse; Chores; Size of ranchers; Attends school at Jamestown
500 – John Lakee; Well; Artesian wells; Coal; Underground mine; Wood; Soft coal; Babysitter; Dances; Musicians; George Gardner
642 – Square dancing on horseback; G. Gardner moves to Badlands; Rodeo grounds; Dedication of bridge; D. Harkins; Mr. L. Palasier; Rodeo grounds; Libauxs; Harmons; Cowboys
756 – Medora’s popularity; Stockyards; Post offices; The girls’ responsibilities; Her education; Rural school; The school term; Medora in 1910 – Harris store; Hauling coal in 1916-24 with mules
910 – Ray’s store; Move to ranch; Old-timers; Boards with her uncle; Harris store is destroyed; Merchandise; Counters; Businesses
103 – SIDE TWO – Depot; Telephone; Folley is chateau’s administrator; Chateau is rooming house; Sylvester’s historical collection; “Characters”; Becomes married; Inside of the mine; Salaries of miners; Quality of coal; “Spur”; The coal production; Danger of mining
220 – Miners live in Medora; Medora’s reputation; Owners of mine; Raising mules; Manage store; Buys ranch; Price of cattle; Children; Feeding a family; Location of ranch; Their acreage of ranch; Raise corn and pigs
309 – Neighbors; Social life in 30’s; Family life; Reasons for “the good old days”; Babysitters; The younger generation; The movies; Register of Roughrider Hotel
402 – Hunters and trappers; Wildlife; Rattlers; Loneliness; The tourist opinion of North Dakota; Beauty of the Badlands; The progress in North Dakota
529 – Modern country homes; Morale in 30’s; Government buys the cedar berries; Canning fruit; Mushrooms; Pheasants cause destruction; Artesian well; Garden; Cellar; Cans meat; Refrigerator; Delco plant; Stove; Lamp
654 – Religious camaraderie; Effects of fencing; A roundup crew; Chuckwagon; Size of herd; Threshing rigs
763 – Blacksmith; Threshing; Flour mill; Plowing with horses; Transients
810 – End of interview

Tape #16 Peter Basaraba and Joe Hecker (Belfield)
000 – Introduction
020 – Peter moves to North Dakota; Hauls wood to Dickinson; The experiment station; Plows; Sod house; Anecdote about the cattle destroying house; Leaves home; Hauls grain to the city of Dickinson
148 – Reasons for Ukrainians immigrating to North Dakota; Austria; Ukrainians; Nationalities; Homestead; Opinion of North Dakota; Families that immigrated; 1916 drought; Becomes married; 1915-16 crops; Rust; 1917-19 crops; Grasshoppers harass human being
341 – Grasshoppers; Varieties of wheat; Buys home; 1918 flu epidemic; Helps father; Father dies; Stays with parents; Working with railroad; Salary; Price of cedar; Father improves; Homesteading laws; Finding wives; Marriage within ethnic groups
451 – Divorce; Selling wheat for food; Canning; Homemade sauerkraut; Using cabbage for medicinal purposes; Cellar; The threshing; Mine; Butchers pigs
540 – Joe’s family history; Homestead; (Pete) School; 1906 winter; Well; Springs; Horse falls into well; The rattlesnakes; Hunting jackrabbits
673 – Hauls wood; Open A ranch; Pumping water; Coal mine; Open A ranch; Herding sheep; 1906 moisture; Anecdote while herding sheep
817 – Farming with oxen; Breaking plow; Broadcasting; The drills; Harrowing; Planting flax; Thresh machine
986 – Steam engine; Case and Reeves engines; Moving an engine from alkali
101 – SIDE TWO – Story about a man farming, dead horses, and flax; Ukrainian church, post office, and weddings; Ukrainian and Turk conflict; Opinion of United States; 1902-18 crops; Grasshoppers; Rust; Pestilence of jackrabbits
260 – Opinion of North Dakota; Father dies; Buying cars; camaraderie; Nationalities; Russian war with Japan; Ukrainian people become salves to Germans
356 – Thistles; picking weeds; Mustard; Canadian thistle; Wild oats; NPL; Townley’s oil well; Rainmaker; Preventing hail; Owns saloon at Beach; Townley argues in saloon
463 – Works in saloon; Sells saloon; NPL membership fee; The promoting funds for B. Langer; Submarginal land; Opinion of Langer; Opinion of NPL, G. Ford and R. Nixon
592 – WPA; Opinion of F.D.R. and T. Roosevelt
684 – End of interview

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