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Manuscripts - ND Oral History Collection - 10157 - Benson County

Benson County

Region Sixteen
1 Orris G. Nordhaugen, Leeds 0042A & B
2 Mr. and Mrs. Ralph Pierson, York 0043A & B
3 W. H. (Mack) Johnson, Leeds 0044A & B
4 Mr. and Mrs. Lars R. Larson, Leeds 0045A & B
5 Elmer Tufte, Leeds 0046A & B
6 Elizabeth Follman, York 0047A
7 Mrs. Lucy Russell, Leeds 0047B
8 Lester J. Rendahl, Fillmore 0048B
9 Carolina Nelson, Maddock 0049B
10 Ella M. Dalbak, Maddock 0050A & B
11 Carl E. Goranson, Oberon 0051A & B
12 Clarence Howe, Lillian and Clarence L. Jensen, Esmond 0052A & B
13 Francis O. Krouse, Joseph Olson and Richard W. Olson, Esmond 0053A & B
14 William R. Preuss, Esmond 0054A & B
15 Mr. and Mrs. Gust A. Berg, Tokio 0055A
16 Emma Casper, Warwick 0055B
17 Mrs. O. B. Wood, Crary – Warwick 0056A & B
18 Albert Tufte, Leeds 0057A & B, 0058A & B

Tape #42 Orris G. Nordhaugen (Leeds)
000 – Introduction
004 – Statement of sincerity by Mr. Nordhaugen
016 – Family’s arrival in North Dakota, arrival in Leeds in 1912, their livelihood
194 – Nationalities around Leeds
106 – His marriage, His elevator ownership, Various professions of his father
135 – His family, brothers and sisters, history of family name
169 – His father’s politics, membership in the Non-Partisan League, political acquaintances
201 – Orris’ politics and beliefs
227 – Non-Partisan League, recollections of Townley’s and McKenzie’s influence, Charles W. Fine’s organization of Non-Partisan League, membership of same
322 – Farmers beliefs and membership in the League
358 – Candidates of the League for the legislature, Townley’s influence in politics
458 – Langer’s and Lemke’s political positions and their opinion of the Non-Partisan League
500 – Langer’s power in the 30’s
542 – Townley’s and Langer’s lieutenants
571 – End of side one
001 – Townley’s and Langer’s lieutenants continued
014 – Townley’s political attitude changes, Langer and Townley become friends
042 – Personalities, characteristics and style of Langer and Townley’s peers in politics
067 – Health of political system in teens, twenties, and 30’s compared to today’s politics
110 – Politics and survival of the citizens, political participation by citizens
171 – Benson County State Holiday Association formation
200 – Tenner sincerity compared to Leeds in reference to the Holiday Association
214 – Political composition of Holiday Association
242 – Orris’ start in politics, his running for the legislature, his terms in office, 1943 – 1953
419 – Buckshot’s potential political future, recollections and reminiscences about Orris’ political peers during his politically active years
457 – Economics creates the political temper of the times
515 – Opinion of North Dakota and its political future
540 – Coal development in western North Dakota, growth in size of farms
568 – End of tape

Tape #43 Mr. and Mrs. Ralph Pierson (York)
000 – Introduction
020 – Arrival of Pierson family in North Dakota and family history
124 – Father’s start in cattle and horse farming
136 – Proving of claims
148 – Dunkirk Colony
172 – Ralph’s fathers Percheron horses
230 – Work history of Ralph’s father
271 – Mrs. Ralph Pierson’s family history
312 – First family in North Dakota to have REA electricity
378 – First electric appliance
395 – Early organization of REA around Baker and York
413 – The first school and the boarding of the teachers
452 – Mrs. Pierson’s fathers early homestead
483 – High School years
566 – End of side one
Side two
001 – The acquiring of the land
006 – The hired help
022 – The thirties
025 – Weather and crops
031 – Percheron horse raising and recollections of Ralph’s father
130 – Recollections of Townley and Langer
161 – End of recording

Tape #44A W. H. (Mack) Johnson (Leeds)
000 – Introduction
016 – A native Minnesotan, his arrival in North Dakota, early job history
039 – Brother Harry’s arrival in Edmore 1908 – 09, hunting and knowledge of the environment
060 – Wife raised with Indians at Pomme de Terre, a fort, Reminiscences of family history
080 – His dray line ownership, early jobs before his marriage, love of hunting, 1947 game warden and problems pertaining thereto, Recollections of the 1920’s hunting rules and regulations and the non-enforcement of the same
123 – Nationality of hunters, prolific game, types of game, market hunting, general hunting reminiscences
222 – Present day hunting practices
230 – Fishing reminiscences in Minnesota
271 – Brother Harry’s paper in Edmore, recollections of Edmore’s commercial life, brother’s first car
307 – Variety of jobs after sale of dray line
312 – I.W.W. in and around Edmore
324 – Wages on threshing crew, the length of the working days
330 – Horses and his trading of them, his training of them, recollections of some of his favorites
515 – Building of the road South of Devils Lake to Coglin (?)
579 – Edmore dray line work and its demise, the arrival of the motor vehicles, the rail road dependability
684 – Nationalities around Edmore, his liking for the area and its fishing compared with Minnesota fishing
759 – Side two
760 – Devils Lake fishing and its current pollution problems
778 – Early social life in Edmore
791 – Bootleggers in Edmore
803 – Edmore’s early marketing area, more horse trading, farmers’ care of their horses
852 – Employment after sale of dray line in 1932 up to July 1947
910 – Recollections of some of his early motor vehicles
942 – Edmore in the 30’s, vandalism today
968 – WPA in Edmore
017 – Some people discouraged and leave during the 30’s, those that stayed in Edmore, survival in the 30’s, his family
051 – Early days as game warden beginning in 1947, his award from Watford City
428 – Concern of effect of coal development in Western part of State on farming
468 – His concern for chemical insecticides effect on wild game and fowl
515 – End of interview

Tape #45 Mr. and Mrs. Lars P. Larson (Leeds)
000 – Introduction
017 – Arrival of family in North Dakota
093 – Mrs. Shaustad, midwife for Lars’ brothers and sisters
103 – North Dakota lonesome place for women from 1870 to 1900
117 – Early merchants in area
129 – First Larson home and homestead
146 – Prairie fires
183 – Water supply in area fluctuates
193 – Fuel supply in area, coal mines
244 – Rural schools, teachers’ housing
268 – Farming with oxen
290 – Threshing in area
323 – Lars’ chores as a young boy
333 – Land availability
352 – Relatives come over from Norway
368 – Rodents destroy crops, pocket gophers invade farm lands
400 – Breaking up new land, first crop off a new field is flax
414 – Steam tractors
438 – Selling of eggs and butter in Minot
447 – Higher education
456 – Non-Partisan League, politics
582 – Farmers dissatisfied with Capitalistic control
501 – Lars’ job history
527 – Drought and gophers hit farmers
535 – Lars’ father’s early struggle to homestead
569 – Lars’ mothers family (Rorstad)
584 – Mrs. Larson’s family’s arrival in North Dakota
645 – Mrs. Larson’s schooling and education
657 – Language differences in the area and within the church
684 – Early church attendance and membership
741 – Early social life and entertainment in the area
758 – End of side one
Side Two
001 – Early social life and entertainment in the area, continued
073 – Early Christmases
089 – The first meeting between Mr. and Mrs. Larson
100 – Higher education in the early days
112 – 1918 flu epidemic
163 – Marriage of Larsons, they begin farming
170 –The 30’s
268 – Farmers leave area to help in the war effort
275 – Organizations help for farmers
303 – Farmers too eager for land today
328 – Bill Langer, Politician
350 – People’s attitude to politics today
362 – Early socializing
372 – Electricity for the Larsons, first electric appliances
458 – Larson farm history, barn was built by the railroad
488 – Changes in farming
532 – End of interview

Tape #46 Elmer Tufte (Leeds)
000 – Introduction
016 – Arrival of the Tufte family in North Dakota
048 – Family history
062 – Nationalities in the area, Dunkerd Colony
100 – Olaf Pierson’s farm lands acquisition, large farms in the area
129 – Elmer’s family
140 – Elmer’s job history
154 – Farming in Canada and North Dakota
186 – Elmer’s recollections of his father
207 – Elmer’s schooling and education
257 – Elmer and his father’s politics, recollections of A. C. Townley
298 – More of Elmer’s family
310 – Politics again, Elmer as a County Commissioner
391 – Tying Elmer’s Canadian and North Dakota years into a sequence
420 – Farms dwindle in area, early homesteaders
483 – The tough thirties
535 – Early custom work in the area
610 – Early banks in the area, the effect of the crash on local farmers
662 – Farm Holiday Association in Benson County
690 – WPA in Benson County
735 – End of side one
Side Two
001 – Hobo range far afield, pretty good workers on threshing crews
039 – Bootlegging liquor in the area
051 – Early social life and entertainment in the area
102 – Farmers Union in the area
125 – Elmer’s trucking of cattle, the slaughter of cattle by the Government to raise cattle prices
163 – His association and recollections of Olaf Pierson, other neighbors and Bill Langer
274 – The telephone’s arrival in the area, maintenance and operation of the same
296 – The gopher plague
310 – Picnics at Silver Lake, farming of lake beds during the 30’s
330 – Elmer’s purchase of Bill Lemke’s land
402 – End of interview

Tape #47A Mrs. Elizabeth Follman (York)
000 – Introduction
016 – Elizabeth’s parents and relations arrival in North Dakota, some family history
066 – Getting established in the area
077 – Prairie fires around York
083 – Water availability on the farm, getting first crops establishes
100 – Gardens on the farm, root cellars
107 – Schooling for Elizabeth and her sisters and brothers
119 – Elizabeth’s in-laws arrival in North Dakota
132 – Elizabeth and husband Curt setting up farming, their family
150 – Early neighbors of the Tollmans
156 – Early entertainment around York, the radio kept people home after its arrival on the scene
175 – Methods of farming
187 – Recollections of food preservation
202 – 1918 flu epidemic around York
207 – Buying supplies for home and farm in York
222 – The tough 30’s
267 – Present vacancies of farm in the neighborhood
276 – North Dakota as a place to live
284 – The Homemakers Club, Curts family
330 – Old home remedies for illnesses
359 – Traveling salesmen in the early days, Gypsies in the neighborhood
409 – Sewing to clothe the family
433 – Electricity on the farm, appliances to simplify homemaking
506 – Butchering and preservation of meat in the early days
538 – End of interview

Tape #47B and 48A Mrs. Lucy Russell (Leeds)
000 – Introduction
016 – Lucy’s family moves to North Dakota, Lucy unhappy about the move, some family history
110 – Lucy’s family moves to Montana, she remains behind with husband Tim
121 – Early entertainment in the area
136 – Nationalities of the area
140 – About Lucy’s husband Tim, recollections of their early days of farming, the hardships they suffered, their family
240 – Early doctors of the area
251 – York in the early days, it’s burning down
266 – Water for farming
277 – “The good old days”, electricity and all the new appliances
305 – Lucy’s children, her present years
329 – Early entertainment at home with nine children, recollections of barn dances before Lucy’s marriage
432 – Family life of today, Lucy’s children grew up with chores and duties
476 – Lucy helps husband Tim with the farm work, making ends meet
512 – Neighbors to the farm
547 – North Dakota hard on women around the turn of the century
567 – Endo of tape.  Interview continued on tape #48A
Tape #48A (side one)
000 – Introduction
016 – Entertainment, dances, going into town, recollections of her early years in North Dakota
031 – Threshing around York, farming a big gamble, cooking for threshing crews before Lucy’s marriage
110 – The terrible 30’s
140 – Farming changes, new equipment alleviates some of the drudge of farming
154 – Size of farms today
161 – Coal development in North Dakota
173 – Non-Partisan League, Tim a Democrat, politics in general
186 – World War I, sewing, making bandages to aid the servicemen
200 – Religion in early North Dakota farming life
251 – 1918 flu epidemic
271 – Early home remedies for illnesses
290 – Weather predicting by farmers
309 – Getting ahead farming
323 – Sewing to clothe the family
343 – Early Christmases
353 – Lucy’s opinion of Women’s Liberation
383 – Helping to make ends meet during the early days, canning and preserving foods
469 – Lucy didn’t join any clubs during her farming years, no time for herself
484 – Lucy’s advice for living today
514 – The changes in the country from 1902
535 – Fuel in the early days
567 – Lucy doesn’t appreciate North Dakota cold winters, a general discussion of weather
592 – Traveling salesmen, gypsies in the area
637 – Raising Percheron horses
668 – No real regrets about staying in North Dakota to farm
711 – Telephone service comes to farm
733 – End of interview
Comment:  Lucy is not a half-way person.  She is very decisive and has a good, clear memory at 91 years of age.  She has maintained a good sense of humor

Tape #48B and 49A Lester J. Rendahl (Fillmore)
000 – Introduction
018 – Lester’s family comes to North Dakota
071 – Nationalities in the area
083 – Lester’s mother’s homestead shared with brother Bert, his father’s homestead
089 – Area towns
104 – Lester’s mother’s first home she built with her brother Bert
114 – Parents opinion of the country
123 – Early homesteaders in the area
132 – Lester’s mother again, his brothers and sisters
150 – The town of Esmond
160 – Prairie fires, no water shortage
168 – Fuel in the area
176 – The town of Fillmore
181 – Lester’s birth and early education of himself and a brother
220 – Early businesses in Fillmore
280 – Social life of the area
375 – Family size in the “old days”
381 – Contentment of the people “back then”, Lester’s firm resolve to farm
415 – NPL in the area
445 – Businesses decline in the area
458 – Fillmore/Baker competition for business and the electric co-op
500 – Baseball teams of the times
514 – Churches center for some social life
546 – Lester’s return to the farm after his college years, his early years back on the farm
612 – Farms disappearing from the landscape, size of the farms “then and now”
663 – Worst years of the 30’s, people generally good tempered
721 – Lester’s opinion of Bill Langer and FDR
757 – End of tape
Tape #49A
001 – Introduction and explanation of interviews on both sides of the tape
016 – Businesses in and around Fillmore
025 – Syrians around Fillmore, their acceptance in the community
043 – Credit on Lester’s father’s Farm Implement Store books during the 30’s
063 – Lester’s time threshing in and around Fillmore
092 – Farm Holiday Association around Fillmore, radicals passing through the area
136 – A change of opinion of Bill Langer, Lester decides to become a Democrat, local politics
192 – Some reasons for farmers leaving the area
211 – Hobos in the Fillmore area
224 – Wind damage to farmland, farm programs which came out of FDR’s government that have helped the farmers
253 – The attitude of people today, Lester is an armchair philosopher
351 – Coal development in Western North Dakota
379 – Lester’s attitude of North Dakota, a booster for the state
411 – Lester’s opinion of Jimmy Carter and his mandates, discussion of the other presidential candidates
448 – People seem to be generally more cynical about politics today, Lester’s opinion of the CIA and its operating procedures
524 – End of interview

Tape #49B Carolina Nelson (Maddock)
000 – Introduction and explanation concerning the brevity of this interview
017 – Carolina’s arrival in North Dakota from Sweden, some family history
048 – Carolina works outside her home as a domestic for room and board, she washes dishes in the hotel as a second job
052 – Some of her own family history, her marriage to a farmer and her children
073 – Early years on the farm, a struggle to get ahead
083 – Nationalities of the area
089 – Carolina’s children, a son dies in World War II
096 – A midwife assists in the birth of her 7 children, There were no doctors available in the area then
102 – Renting a farm was tough going to get ahead
112 – Early social life in the area
124 – About the church in Clara
139 – Businesses in Clara
146 – 1918 flu epidemic
163 – The 30’s, husband’s death in 1936
176 – Carolina’s life after husband’s death
200 – North Dakota didn’t impress Carolina on her arrival
213 – End of interview

Tape #50 Ella M. Dalbak (Maddock)
000 – Introduction
016 – Family’s arrival in North Dakota, some family history
080 – Country stores and post offices now disappeared from the area
119 – Nationalities in the area
133 – Scarcity of neighbors, the building of their own farm house and outbuildings
156 – Type of fuel used in the area
195 – Hauling logs and sod for building purposes
205 – Thoughts of North Dakota upon arrival here, schooling as Ella grew up
220 – Collecting buffalo bones to sell rather than to use for fuel
241 – Compatibility with the Indians, recollections of early Indian encounters
316 – Prairie fires in early North Dakota
370 – Water for the house
409 – Ella’s family size and some family history
435 – Homesteading neighbors who came in after Ella’s family arrived
505 – The steamboat “Minnie H”
554 – Recollections of the establishing of Maddock
568 – End of side one
Side Two (50-B)
002 – Early schooling for the children of the area
018 – Ella works outside of her home after finishing her education
029 – Farming in 1896, i.e. planting, harvesting, etc., threshing crews
083 – Early social life in the community
116 – Farming with oxen
125 – Ella marries Peter Dalbak in 1909, recollections of their work history
170 – Maddock’s growth
206 – Chautauqua’s in the area
223 – Social organizations in Maddock, farmers and town folks very compatible, very little taking sides in the organizations
238 – The first area churches
273 – The “dry years” in the 1880’s and 1890’s
294 – Coyotes, wolves and antelope plentiful many years ago
302 – Hunting around the turn of the century
347 – The lovely prairie flowers
357 – Current trend in socializing compared to “old times”
365 – 1918 flu epidemic, the doctor situation at Maddock
405 – Ella’s father’s horses, horse raising in the area
430 – The “good old days”
442 – Grinding flour for cooking purposes, no local mill available
482 – Kitchen gardens for Ella’s family
514 – Ella’s trips to Oberon before Maddock was platted
541 – Ella’s mother bought most clothing in town but the catalog was sometimes used for ordering some items
558 – End of interview

Tape #51 Carl E. Goranson (Oberon)
001 – Introduction
016 – Discussion of a kerosene lamp
033 – The Goranson’s arrival in North Dakota
064 – An early frontier woman doctor
081 – Early Oberon a “beautiful little city”
105 – Carl’s father’s homestead
111 – Nationalities in the area
139 – “Abandoned prairie” – farmers leaving the area, towns fading, prairie reverting back to prairie
176 – The family’s first opinion of North Dakota
203 – Carl’s mother, Anna Carlson Goranson, Dr. Ole Olson attended Carl’s birth, a mid-wife for some of her other children
227 – Recollections of some early pioneers of the area, some were “characters” of the first order, A killing in Oberon, a knife fight in an alley, fighting on the coal car
411 – Oberon an early marketing town
430 – Saturday the “social night of the community”
452 – Carl’s dad’s first farm at Lolly, the move to Oberon
470 – Water not a problem around Oberon, the town is built over an ancient glacial lake
494 – Political recollections of the area, the NPL
567 – End of side one
Side Two (51-B)
001 – Early politics become emotional during the NPL days
014 – People cynical about politics today as a contrast to the earlier days
040 – Bill Langer visits Oberon
072 – Townley visits Oberon for a political rally
092 – Social life in early Oberon
132 – “The Good Old Days” for friendly neighbors and socializing
145 – Lodges and clubs in Oberon
170 – The Baldwin home in Oberon a work of art
200 – The Farm Holiday Association
239 – Tough times in the 30’s
302 – Grasshoppers a plague
316 – Dust and new ideas in farming
338 – Some people discouraged enough to leave, some tough it out
351 – The exodus of the 40’s
364 – Farming practices of today
414 – Carl’s auctioneering career
554 – Carl proud to tell people he comes from North Dakota
568 – End of interview

Tape #52 Clarence Howe, Lillian Jensen, and Clarence L. Jensen (Esmond)
001 – Introduction and explanation
016 – Arrival of the Howe family in North Dakota, some family history
042 – Howe family homestead
077 – Water very good and plentiful in the area
080 – Coal used mostly for fuel in the area
087 – Jensen family arrives in North Dakota
106 – Inland post offices around Esmond
151 – Elder Jensen’s early experiences around Oberon and some family history
205 – Some information on neighbors
249 – Farming differences between nationalities, religious differences
280 – Mrs. Jensen’s family homestead, some family history, recollections of early events in the area
368 – The Antelope Hills area
385 – Early North Dakota a lonesome place for women, many ended by losing their minds
419 – Prairie fires of years ago
433 – Buffalo bones in great demand years ago
448 – Supplies for the Jensen Oberon store came by railroad
464 – Devils Lake and its ports, the water level of the lake
502 – Early social life in the area, playing piano and trumpet for dances
585 – Baseball very popular around Esmond, horseracing and pony races enjoyed by the surrounding area
649 – Summer celebrations brought in many people from out of town
673 – Esmond shrinking in size today
684 – Hobo’s came in the spring
706 – More social life described
742 – Esmond’s marketing area
754 – End of side one (A)
Side 2 (B) of tape 52
000 – Main line of the Great Northern railroad
013 – Ranches during the Territory days
066 – Interesting characters of the area, Fred Gillette, Dana White
095 – Oberon:  early settlers and interesting people
105 – A lady doctor in Oberon
126 – Midwives help when doctors are not available
139 – Indians trade at the store in Oberon, Fort Totten
145 – Messiah Craze frightens the whites
164 – Indians bring wood to farmers to sell
171 – Building the railroad from Oberon
174 – Businessmen of Esmond
214 – Recollections of baseball games, wrestling matches in the area
237 – Knox stage article read
243 – “Blind Pig’s” in the area, cattle rustlers
341 – Early 4th of July celebrations, some local participants
377 – Antelope Hills ranches shipped beef by railroad
393 – Nick Comfort, a shady guy?  Interesting characters recollected
507 – More about baseball
555 – Barkers Station becomes Oberon
565 – How and why Rhodes becomes the town of Esmond
581 – More baseball
652 – The NPL around Esmond
699 – Great town spirit today, too
716 – Picnics at the lakes, politics
755 – End of interview

Tape #53A Francis O. Krause, Joseph Olson, and Richard W. Olson (Esmond)
001 – Introduction
016 – Family’s arrival in North Dakota
046 – Nationalities of the area
051 – Opinion of area upon arrival
065 – First home the family built
080 – The German-Russian Settlement
089 – Proving on homesteads
098 – Early neighbors around Esmond
114 – Early ranchers and the Antelope Lake area
142 – Cattle – horse rusting in the early days
148 – Family marital status and age of family members
152 – No doctors in area so a midwife was called for maternity cases
154 – Proud of the way they were raised and the advantages of growing up in the area
161 – More on midwifery
168 – Gerrard Lake area and its influence on the youth in the area
188 – Early farming with horses, prairie fires
200 – Water availability in the area
210 – Area post offices way back when
220 – Early social life in the area
258 – Interesting characters of the area
311 – Recreation on and around Lake Gerrard, winter and summer
325 – Early teachers in the area, the school
350 – The early years were tough in North Dakota, threshing in the area
389 – The flu of 1918 – 1919, the seven children of the family all attend college
412 – Status of farms and land then and now
442 – Francis’ education and adventures in teaching school
751 – NPL in the area
Side Two (B) of tape 53
001 – Non-Partisan League continued
032 – The 30’s, WPA in the area, CWA came before WPA
050 – Cattle raising in the early days for Dick, horse raising around Gerrard
104 – Steam, gas and fuel oil tractors each used on the farm, Joe’s engineering history
151 – Threshing and the IWW
201 – Milking cows and the sale of milk
220 – Flour mills scarce in the early days
243 – Electricity comes to the region
283 – The advent of the telephone
293 – Socializing in the early days compared with today’s entertainment
329 – Pride in North Dakota
345 – Early schooling recollections
374 – Feed for cattle a problem in the 30’s
390 – The exodus of farm families, new settlers move into the area
412 – End of interview

Tape #54A William R. Preuss (Esmond)
001 – Introduction
004 – No recording
015 – Visiting about friends
022 – Arrival in North Dakota from Germany, father’s job history leading up to filing for a homestead claim
098 – Some homesteaders leave right after “proving up” on homesteads
109 – Location of father’s homestead, some neighbors, Bill’s mother a postmistress
154 – Establishing and naming the post office
173 – Bill’s mother’s history and meeting Bill’s father
190 – Bill’s father’s coming to North Dakota, more about his dad’s early job years, some job working for Bill Langer
238 – Homesteaders nationalities of the area, types of homes built, Russian bricks
338 – No shortage of water on the Preuss homestead, good spring water
359 – Acquiring the present place by purchase rather than homesteading
375 – Bill’s father took an instant liking to the area
407 – Some very bad weather years
443 – Bill’s siblings
549 – Bill agrees that the very early years in North Dakota were hard on women
488 – First telephone in the area
517 – Bill’s father’s people all come to North Dakota in later years
552 – People more community minded in the early days before radio and television
589 – End of side one (A)
Side Two (B) of tape 54
001 – Township schools, their multiple use, transportations to such schools
058 – Recollections of politics, Bill Langer’s politics, the NPL and the Holiday Association
230 – The organizing of the Farmer’s Union
284 – The 30’s were bad
413 – Army worms and grasshoppers
468 – More about the 30’s
479 – Never apologetic about coming from North Dakota, Bill is very proud of his state
559 – Bill feels the farms are too large now, may contribute to the disappearance of the small towns
589 – End of interview
Comment:  William Preuss has extensive knowledge of the building products of the area when homesteaders were building their homes and gives the location of some existing “sod” and “Russian brick” buildings

Tape #55A Mr. and Mrs. Gust A. Berg (Tokio)
001 – Introduction
015 – Visiting about friends
024 – The arrival in North Dakota and some family and farm history
090 – The Berg family was not impressed with the area initially.  Adjustments are made, tight finances, more farming and family history
121 – Homesteading on the Indian Reservation
132 – Good water on the farm
142 – Cattle farming with some horses
162 – Prairie fires, Indian annoyances, making a living was hard
175 – Nationalities in the area
190 – Father remarries, a new family is started, A neighbor midwife assisted with the births
218 – Immigrant cars bring new arrivals
233 – Sod homes in the area
245 – Living and socializing with the Indians in the early days
260 – Farming with oxen and horses.  Strong character in the neighbors, each helps the other.  More family history
305 – Flax first crop planted, small grain farming, acquisition of land, the loss of some land
360 – Gust marries, some farm and family history, a “barnyard loan”
414 – Farm Holiday Association in the area, tough times to live through
427 – Non-Partisan League very popular political movement in Tokio, Townley and Langer
463 – Threshing in the area
495 – The IWW creates some minor problems for Gust
516 – People were happier in the early days, socializing in the area
575 – Tokio quite a town in the early days, some towns go under
600 – The purpose of this tape
604 – The 30’s were very bad for Gust and his family
681 – Hay not a problem for Gust’s cattle, black leg strikes in the area
730 – North Dakota and OK place to live though some areas might be better
738 – Changes in farming distasteful to Gust
777 – End of interview

Tape #55B Emma Casper (Warwick)
001 – Introduction
016 – Emma’s family arrives in North Dakota, some family history
060 – Emma found the countryside and homestead very lonesome
079 – Hauling lumber to build
088 – Emma starts her family with the assistance of a neighbor midwife
103 – Nationalities of the area, the isolation, Emma kept busy to stave off loneliness
151 – Good water available on the homestead
158 – Very few prairie fires in the area
169 – Hard times ease a bit when the Caspers acquire some cows
185 – A bit of Emma’s personal life
195 – Community social life
211 – Otto and Emma move to Litchfield, Minnesota but return to North Dakota which they preferred
220 – Warwick grows, some of the better stores in town
258 – Emma sells butter in Warwick, Hard but good days, the local churches
292 – Neighbors more neighborly years ago, they needed each other more then
299 – No radio or television then so they entertained themselves after dark
318 – They took grain to Devils Lake for grinding into flour
328 – Early Christmases
337 – Emma does not regret the early days nor her leaving Sweden, some family history and geography
369 – The 30’s were very bad for the Caspers
396 – Otto worked on WPA projects for a short time
401 – Dust storms were pretty terrible
414 – Sewing helped to make ends meet
429 – Catalog buying was almost the only way they bought dry goods
442 – Emma never felt poor even though there was virtually no money, she is content and happy at nearly 90 years of age
455 – The sewing club
464 – Emma taught herself to can, there was no one to assist her in learning, the storage of the summer’s produce
489 – Indians and the homesteaders, Indians in the area today
516 – Threshing for the Caspers
528 – The telephone arrives in Warwick
535 – Warwick preferred to any other area in North Dakota, North Dakota preferred to any other state
551 – Wolves and coyotes calling was scary for Emma
564 – Lignite the common fuel for Otto and Emma and “Oh! The dust from it!”
573 – Dancing and card playing in the neighborhood, general entertainment in the area
619 – Many peddlers throughout the area
640 – End of interview

Tape #56A Mrs. O. B. Wood (Warwick – Crary)
001 – Introduction
016 – The arrival of Mrs. Woods family (Lane) in North Dakota.  Some family history
051 – Mr. Wood’s family’s arrival in North Dakota, Scandinavians flood into the area, some family history, Mr. and Mrs. O.B. Wood loved North Dakota and the area on sight
137 – Indians and the Wood’s, Early housing
173 – Storing flax in the front room of the Wood’s house, More family history, there wasn’t always assistance available when babies were born
202 – Crary as a shopping town, some of the stores therein
241 – Socializing in the early days, Neighborliness then and now
288 – Evening entertainment in the homes after dark, Brumebaugh, North Dakota poetry of February 1908
330 – A good life for the Wood’s, raising seven children, good neighbors all around them
390 – Nationalities of the area
470 – First washing machine for Mrs. Wood
458 – The local churches and the school, boarding the teacher
500 – The 1918 – 1919 flu epidemic
528 – Death and funerals in  1906 – 1910, Typhoid fever
573 – The accidental shooting of Paul Wood in 1930
589 – End of side one (A)
Side Two (B) of tape #56
001 – The accidental shooting of Paul Wood continued, Marvelous neighbors help in getting Paul to the doctor.  Paul lives
051 – A telephone for the Woods
069 – Some hard years.  Cooking in the spare times
100 – Coal used for fuel
114 – An old time Indian of the area
139 – Oscar Wood and his threshing machine, the IWW’s respect for Oscar
169 – the nasty 30’s
178 – Oscar made life easy for his wife and family during the bad years
196 – Moving the house around the area
200 – Oscar and Sherry observed wildlife in their habitat
232 – Scarcity of reading material in the early years, Later literature for the Woods
273 – Early friends and characters of the area
296 – Mrs. Wood was not a seamstress – School lunches and general kinds of foods, storage, and preparation
351 – “A portfolio of famous people in history”
367 – Electricity for the Woods
394 – Oscar was active in the Non-Partisan League and thought highly of Bill Langer
417 – End of interview

Tape # 57 and 58 Mr. Albert Tufte (Leeds)
001 – Introduction
015 – Mr. Tufte is difficult to understand in his responses to the interviewers, therefore, I cannot present an accurate indexing of these two tapes.

 

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