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Manuscripts by Subject - Politics / Government - #10111

Title: Edwin Fremont Ladd Papers

Dates: 1891-1909

Collection Number: 10111

Quantity: 8 cubic feet

Provenance: The State Historical Society of North Dakota probably acquired the Edwin Fremont Ladd Papers from the State Laboratories Department in the mid-1960s. Keith Kepler prepared the inventory to this collection in March 1983.

Property rights: The State Historical Society of North Dakota owns the property rights to this collection.

Copyright: Pub1ic records are not subject t o copyright restrictions, a1though record series may contain copyrighted material. Consideration of such copyrights is the responsibility of the author and publisher.

Access: This collection is open under the rules and regulations of the State Historical Society of North Dakota.

Citation: Researchers are requested to cite the collection title, collection number, and the State Historical Society of North Dakota in all footnote and bibliographic references.

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH

Edwin Fremont Ladd was born on December 13, 1859 in Starks, Maine, attended Somerset Academy in Athens, and graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Maine at Orono in 1884. I n 1885 Ladd worked as an assistant chemist at the New York State Experiment Station in Geneva and later became chief chemist in 1887. Ladd accepted a chemist's position at the North Dakota Agriculture College in 1890. Ladd was chief chemist at the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station from 1890 to 1916 and editor of the North Dakota Farmer at Lisbon from 1899 to 1904. Ladd later became dean of the School of Chemistry and Pharmacy and professor of chemistry at the North Dakota Agricultural College in Fargo, North Dakota. He served as Food Commissioner of North Dakota from 1902 t o 1921, and as president of the North Dakota Agricultural College from 1916 to 1921. In 1920 Ladd was elected as a Nonpartisan Republican to the United States Senate. Ladd was closely identified with agricultural movements in North Dakota and efforts to establish strict regulation of food and drug products. He had a wide knowledge of public questions and was very active in shaping legislation in committee. He also presided over part of the Teapot Dome investigation. Ladd served in the U.S. Senate from 1921 until his death on June 22, 1925 in Baltimore, Maryland. Ladd was a member of the American Chemical Society, Society for the Promotion of Agricultural Science, and the Society of Chemical Industries of London. He married Miss Rizpah Sprogle of Annapolis, Maryland on August 16, 1893.

Sources:
Biographical Directory of the American Congress, 1774-1961.
Fargo Forum, 22 June 1925, p. 1.

SCOPE AND CONTENT

The Edwin Fremont Ladd papers date from 1891 to 1909, occupy eight feet, and document his activities as chief chemist and Food Commissioner of North Dakota. The papers consist of incoming and outgoing letters, Food Commissioner's correspondence, sugar beet seed applications, and the "Benzoate of Soda Controversy" questionnaires.

Incoming letters date from 1891 to 1907, occupy five cubic feet, and are arranged chronologically. The series deals primari ly with Ladd' s administration of the chemistry department at the North Dakota Agricultural College and detail such activities and interests as ordering laboratory equipment and books; testing chemicals, soil, water, and food for nutritional value; experimentation in sugar beet seed cultivation; food additives; pure food and drug laws; life insurance matters; and agricultural exhibitions in various cities. The series consists of letters, postcards, pamphlets, advertisements, graphs, receipts, applications, contracts, telegrams, agreements, booklets, and business cards. Correspondents include the U.S. Department of Agriculture, manufacturers, college faculty, financial institutions, auditors, consumers, railway companies, and publishers.

Outgoing letters date from 1905 to 1907, occupy one-half foot, and are arranged chronologically. The series relates to paint laws, illegal products, testing chemicals and food for nutritional value, meat preservatives and food additives, pure food and drug laws , and personal recommendations for employment. The series consists of letterpress copy books and carbon copies of outgoing letters to state agencies, the United States Department of Agriculture, and manufacturers.

The Food Commissioner's correspondence dates from 1912 to 1913, occupies one and a quarter feet, and is arranged alphabetically. This series deals primarily with Ladd's activities as Food Commissioner of North Dakota. The files generally relate to testing chemicals, laboratory equipment and water; beverage registration; food and sanitary laws; honest advertising; and legislation. This series consists of letters, advertisements, memorandums, and product labels. Correspondents include manufacturers, high schools, and the U.S.D.A.

Sugar Beet Seed Applications date from 1899 to 1901, occupy 14 feet, and are arranged alphabetically and numerically. This series was generated in response to a program to promote cultivation of sugar beets in North Dakota by offering free sugar beet seeds to farmers. The series consists of letters, postcards, and newspaper clippings concerning requests for samples of sugar beet seeds, information concerning cultivation and experimentation of sugar beets, vaccination serum for cattle and mangel-wurzel. Correspondents include farmers, schools, hotels, merchants, state offices, college faculty, manufacturers, real estate and investment brokers, township and county governments, and insurance companies.

The "Benzoate of Soda Controversy" questionnaires date from 1909 and occupy one folder. The questionnaires deal with medicinal use o f benzoate of soda for infants and use of benzoate of soda, salicylic acid, sulphurous acid, formaldehyde, and boracic acid as food additives and preservatives. The questionnaires were sent to physicians in North Dakota to survey their opinions regarding use of these chemicals.

SERIES DESCRIPTION

Series I . Incoming Letters, 1891-1907. Box 1 to 10
Series consists of letters, postcards, pamphlets, advertisements, and receipts detailing such activities as ordering laboratory equipment and books, and testing chemicals, soil, water, and food
for nutritional value.

Series II. Outgoing Letters, 1905-1907. Box 11
Series consists of letterpress copy-books and carbon copies concerning paint laws; testing chemicals and food for nutritional value; and food and drug laws.

Series III. Food Commissioner's Correspondence, 1912-1913. Box 11 to 14
Series consists of letters, advertisements, and memorandums dealing with testing chemicals, laboratory equipment, and water; food and sanitary laws; and honest advertising.

Series IV. The Sugar Beet Seed Applications, 1899-1901. Box 14 to 16
Series consists of letters , postcards, and newspaper clippings concerning requests for samples of sugar beet seeds and information concerning cultivation and experimentation of sugar beets.

Series V. The "Benzoate of Soda Controversy" Questionnaires, 1909. Box 16
Series consists of questionnaires dealing with medicinal use of benzoate of soda for infants and use of benzoate of soda, salicylic acid, sulphurous acid, formaldehyde, and boracic acid as food
additives and preservatives. The questionnaires were sent to physicians in North Dakota to survey their opinions regarding use of these chemicals.

BOX / FOLDER INVENTORY

Series I. Incoming Letters

Box 1:

1. 1891- 1895
2. 1896
3. January-September 1891
4. October 1897-Apri 1 1898
5. May-August 1898

Box 2:

1. September 1898- January 1899
2. February-April 1899
3. May-June 1899
4. July-September 1899
5. October-November 1899

Box 3:

1. December 1899- January 1900
2. February-March 1900
3. April-May 1900
4. June-July 1900
5. August-September 1900
6. October-November 1900

Box 4:

1. December 1900
2. January 1901
3. February 1901
4. March 1901
5. April-May 1901
6. June-August 1901

Box 5:

1. September-November 1901
2. December 1901-February 1902
3. March-June 1902
4. July-October 1902
5. November-December 1902

Box 6:

1. January-February 1903
2. March-April 1903
3. May-July 1903
4. August-September 1903
5. October 1903

Box 7:

1. November 1903-January 1904
2. February 1904
3. March 1-15, 1904
4. March 16-31, 1904
5. April 1-14, 1904
6. April 15-30, 1904

Box 8:

1. May 1904
2. June 1904
3. July 1904
4. August 1904
5. September 1904

Box 9:

1. October 1904
2. November 1904
3. December 1904
4. January 1905
5. February 1-20, 1905

Box 10:

1. February 21-March 10, 1905
2. March 11-24, 1905
3. April 15-25, 1907
4. April 26, 1907
5. April 27-30, 1907
6. May- June 1907
7. Miscellaneous and Updated

Series II. Outgoing Letters

Box 11:

v. 1
v.2
1 April-June 1907

Series III. Food Commissioner's Correspondence

Box 12:

1. File 113 Aa-Ak
2. File 114 A1
3. File 115 Am-An
4. Fi1e 116 Ao-Az
5. File 117 Baa-Ban
6. File 119 Bar-Bay
7. File 120 Bea-Be1
8. File 121 Bem-Bez
9. File 122 Bi

Box 13:

1. File 123 B1
2. File 124 Boa-Bor
3. File 125 Bos-Boz
4. File 126 Bra-Bri
5. File 128 Bro
6. File 129 Bru-Bry
7. File 130 Bua-Bul
8. File 131 Bum-Buy
9. File 132 Caa-Cam
10. File 133 Can-Car
11. File 134 Cas-Caz
12. File 135 Ce-Ch
13. File 136 Ci-C1

Box 14:

1. File 137 Coa-Col
2. File 138 Com-Coo
3. File 139 Cop-Coz
4. File 140 C r
5. File 152 Em-Ez

Series IV. Sugar Beet Seed Applications

6. 1899, A-K
7. 1899, L-Z
8. 1900, A-Z
9. 1901, A-F

Box 15:

1. 1901, G-L
2. 1901, M-Z
3. 1901, 1-199
4. 1901, 200-399
5. 1901, 400-599

Series V. "Benzoate of Soda Controversy" Questionnaires
*v. denotes volume
6. 1909

North Dakota Agricultural College
North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station

Food Department - Specia1 Bulletin
Vol. V, No. 11 (May 1919), pp. 242-257

Eggs, Spoiled---Prosecutions, p. 242
Pies---Illegal, pp. 242-243
Stock Foods. Patent Medicines for Animals, pp. 243-244
Stock Foods. Bulletin No. 151 of the Wisconsin Experiment Station, by Professor F. W. Woll, pp. 244-254
C. P. Guthrie, "Precipitates in Bottled Soda Water," pp. 254-257
Illegal Candy, p. 257
Net Weight Label, p. 257

North Dakota Agricultura1 College
North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station

Food Department - Special Bulletin

Vol. V, No. 10 (April 1919), pp, 219-263
Sanitary Inspection for 1918
Groceries---Score—1918, pp, 222-240
Meat Markets---Score—1918, pp. 241-246
Slaughter Houses---Score—1913, pp. 246-247
Restaurants---Score—1918, pp. 247-253
Confectioneries---Score—1918, p. 253-258
Drug Stores---Score---1910, pp. 258-262
Creameries---Score—1918, pp. 262-263
Bottling Works---Score---1918, p. 263
Ice Cream Factories---Score---1918, p, 263

North Dakota Agricultural College
North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station

Food Department - Special Bulletin
Vol. V, No. 9 (March, 1919), pp. 191-218
Adulterated and Short Weight Butter, p. 191-192
R. Hulbert, "IV. Softening Hard Water with Permutit," pp. 193-208
Charles H. LaWall, "Egg Substitutes and So-Called Egg Savers," pp. 208-218

North Dakota Agricultura1 College
North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station

Food Department - Special Bulletin
Vol. V, No. 12 (July, 1919, pp. 258-277

Skinning the Public, pp. 758-259
The Consumer Pays the Bills. What We Pay for Wrapping Paper, p. 259
Egg Substitutes, pp. 259-260
The Fly, p. 260
Patent Medicines, pp. 260-261
C. P. Guthrie, "Tanlac," pp. 261-264
Mrs. Price’s Canning Compound, p. 264
Attorney General’s Opinion. Chicken Feed, pp. 264-265
F. C . Himber, "Strawberries---Weight Per Box, pp. 265-266
Senate Bill No. 26 (Morkrid). Sale of Snzall Fruit, p. 267
W. G. Bowers, "The Chemical Ana1ysis of a few Food Preparations Compared to the Claims on the Labels," pp. 267-277
Bad Eggs, p. 268

North Dakota Agricultural College
Government Agricultural Experiment Station

Special Bulletin No. 12 (April 1913), 11 p.
E. F. Ladd, Chemist and Commissioner, "Cold Storage, False Advertising and Snuff Laws," pp. 1-11

At the last session of the legislature several important measures were enacted into laws that will affect the work of the Food Department. In order to furnish the information to the public, these laws are presented herewith in full, together with rulings and regulations, as far as published at the present time. All of the Laws, excepting the Diseased Meat Law which carries an emergency clause, go in force July 1st, 1913, and manufacturers and dealers should, therefore, take note
of the requirements of the provisions of this Statute.

Cold Storage Warehouses (S.B. No. 48—Porterfield), pp. 2-5
Cold Storage Regulations, pp. 6-7
False and Misleading Advertising (H.B. No. 283—Lewis), pp. 7-8
Prohibiting Manufacture and Sale of Snuff (S.B. No. 98---Thoreson), 9-10
Meat from Diseased Animals, pp. 10-11

In the past it has been a common practice to sell the meat off diseased animals or animals that have been condemned for such diseases as tuberculosis, and the buyer had no means of knowing whether or not such meat was from an affected animal.
At the last session of the legislature there was enacted a law intended to regulate the handling and sale of meat from such diseased animals or of milk from these same animals. The present new law does not prevent the offering marked as "Affected Meat." This law is in harmony with the requirements of our Food Law, in that it does not prohibit the sale of the product, but makes it possible for the purchaser thereof to know that the meat he secures has come from an animal
affected with some disease but which has been inspected and still deemed safe for human consumption.
The essential features of this law are given as follows:
Meats and Milk---Labeling of (Senate Bill 315—Bonzer)

North Dakota Agricultural College
North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station

Special Bulletin No. 6 (Reprint ) (May, 1915)

E. F. Ladd, State Chemist and Food Comissioner, "Food and Drug Laws," pp. 1-48

Since the first printing of Special Bulletin No. 6, the Food Law has been twice re-enacted and the Drug Law amended, making it necessary to reprint the several laws as herein given. Advantage is also taken to include general food and drug laws of interest to the public, as found compiled i n the North Dakota Code for 1913.

Food Law, pp. 1-8 The law, as printed, was enacted 8 March 1915
Pure Drug Law, pp. 8-1 2

The Political Code of the State of North Dakota, for 1913, Chapter 38, Article 48, Sections 2939, 2951.
Adulteration of Dairy Products, pp. 12-15

The Political Code of the State of North Dakota, for 1913, Chapter 38, Article 36, contains the following: (Sections 2851, 2852, 2855, 2856, 2857, 2860, 2863)

Hotels Supply Pure Water. Article 57, p. 16

Section 2994, from S.L. 1907, Ch- 135, sec. 16.

Adulterated Dairy Products, pp. 16-19

The Penal Code of the State of North Dakota for 1913, Chapter 95, is as follows : (Sections 10196, 10205)

Weight, Measure or Count of Food Products, pp. 19-20

The Political Code for the State of North Dakota for 1913, Chapter 38, Article 60, provides : (sections 3010-3013)

Legal Weights, p. 21

The Political Code for the State of North Dakota for 1913, Chapter 38, Article 59, provides : (section 3006)
General Food and Drug Laws

The Penal Code of the State of North Dakota for 1913, Chapter 50, provides:
(Sections 9741, 9765-9767)

Selling Adulterated and Unwholesome Food or Medicine, pp. 23-24

The Penal Code of the State of North Dakota for 1913, Chapter 96, is as follows: (Sections 10206-10209)
Distributing Drugs Prohibited, pp . 24-25

The Penal Code of the State of North Dakota for 1913, Chapter 104, Section 10260,
with regard to distributing drugs, is as follows:

(Section 10260)

Adulteration of Oils , pp. 26-27

The Political Code for North Dakota for 1913, Chapter 38, Article 39, contains the following: (Sections 2874-2876, pertaining to Linseed Oil)

Adulteration of Paints, pp. 27-28

The Political Code for North Dakota for 1913, Chapter 38, Article 45, contains the following: (sections 2923-2925)

Paints to Comply with the Law, pp. 28-29

Hints and Guides to those who would Comply with the Pure Food Law, Drug and other Laws, pp. 29-32

Net Weight, Measure or Count, p. 32
Preservatives Permitted, p. 32
Candy, P. 32
Canned Goods, pp. 32-33
Coffees, Cocoas, Etc., p. 33
Condiments, Spices, Etc., pp. 33-34
Baking Powders and other Leavening Agents, pp. 34-35
Ice Creams, pp. 35-36
Extracts, pp. 36-37
Meats, Etc., pp. 37-38
Syrup, Molasses, Etc., pp. 38-39
Vinegars, p. 39
Beverages, pp. 39-40
General Rule, p. 40
Drugs and Patent Medicines, pp. 40-41
Rules and Forms for Labeling, pp. 41-45
Index, pp. 46-48

NORTH DAKOTA AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE
Government Agricultural Experiment Station

Special Bulletin No. 1 (April, 1903), pp. 1-11

E. F. Ladd, Food Commissioner, "Pure Food Law and Rulings of the Food Commissioner," pp. 1-11

Two years ago the Seventh Legislative Assembly enacted a pure food law, the bill having been introduced by Mr. Thomas of Richland County. No appropriation for the proper enforcement of the Pure Food Law was provided for under this bill. Examinations made by the Government Experiment Station for North Dakota of the products found on the markets showed that the foods sold in this state under this law were far from being pure.
Governor White in his message at the opening of the Eighth Legislative Assembly called attention to the need for further legislative action to better regulate the sale of food products. A bill was introduced by Hon. R. S. Lewis of Fargo which was enacted into a law to take effect July 1, 1903. While the appropriation is only $1,500 it is believed that much can be done during the next two months to improve the character of the food products for sale in North Dakota. The Pure Food Law as it now stands is as follows:

Hints and Guides for Those who would Comply with the Pure Food Law, pp. 6-7

The Lewis Pure Food Law goes into effect July 1st, 1903, and it becomes the duty of the Government Agricultural Experiment Station at Fargo, North Dakota, to examine all food products offered for sale in the state and when found to be adulterated to cause the offending party to be prosecuted for violation of the law. By vote of the Board of Trustees of the Agricultural College the Chemist of the Experiment Station (E. F. Ladd) becomes the Food Commissioner for North Dakota and is charged with the duty of enforcing the law in so far as it is made a part of the duty of the station.

Rulings by the Commissioner, pp. 7-1 1
Baking Powders, pp. 7-8
Extracts, p. 9
Meats, etc., p. 10
Spices, etc., pp. 10-11

Laws Administered by NDAC Department of Chemistry in 1914

1. Pure Food Law
2. Drug and Patent Medicine Law
3. Feeding Stuff Law est. S. L. 1907, Ch. 197
4. Beverage Law est. S. L. 1909, Ch. 189
5. Sanitary Inspection Law est. S. L. 1909, Ch. 188
6. Formaldehyde Law
7. Cold Storage Law est. S. L. 1913, Ch. 94
8. Paint Law
9. Commercial Fertilizer Law
10. False and Misleading Advertising Law est. S. L. 1913, Ch. 3
11. Snuff Law

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